The Indo-European Language Family

印欧语系的语言


  1. Armenian 亚美尼亚语族: Armenian, Western Armenian (西部亚美尼亚语), Zok Armenian (克亚美尼亚语
  2. Indo-Iranian 印度-伊朗语族:
       
    1.Indo-Aryan
    印度-雅利安语支:
              a. Sinhalese-Maldivian
    僧伽罗-马尔代夫语组:
                      Maldivian, Sinhalese
    , Vedda
              b. Northwestern zone
    西北区印度-雅利安诸语:
                    i. Dardic
    尔德语组:
                           Kohistani:
                                Bateri,
    Chilisso
    (奇利索语), Degano (德格诺语) (Wotapuri-Katarqalai 沃塔普里语-卡塔尔喀莱语), Gawri (Kalami), Gowro,
                                Indus Kohistani (
    Maiya), Mankiyali
    , Tirahi (
    蒂勒希语), Torwali
                           Chitral: Kalasha, Khowar
                           Kunar:
                              
    Dameli, Gawar-Bati, Grangali (
    格兰加里语), Northeast Pashai, Northwest Pashai, Southeast Pashai, Southwest Pashai,
                              
    Shumashti (舒马斯梯
    )
                           Shina:
                                Brokskat,
    Kalkoti, Kundal ShahiPhalura, Savi, Shina, Kohistani Shina, Ushojo
                           Kashmiri: Kashimri, Poguli
    (
    普古里语)
                    ii. Western Panjabi:
                            
    Northern Hindko, Southern Hindko, Inku (
    印库语), Khetrani (特拉尼语), Pahari-Potwari, Western Punjabi, Siraiki
                   iii. Sindhi:
    Jadgali (
    贾德加里语), Kachchi, Lasi (腊斯), Lawatiyya (拉瓦蒂雅)/ Luwati (鲁瓦), Kholosi (科罗斯语),
                                 
     Sindhi, Sindhi Bhil (
    信德比尔语)
              c. Central zone
    中区印度-雅利安诸语:
                    i. Bhili: 

                          
    Palya Bareli, Pauri Bareli (
    里语), Rathwi Bareli, Bauria, Bhili, Chodri, Bhilali (比拉里), Dhodia (多迪亚语), Dubli (杜布里语),
                           Dungra Bhil
    , Gamit (
    米特语), Adiwasi Garasia (阿迪瓦斯-加拉西亚), Kotvala (科特瓦拉语), Rajput Garasia, Mawchi (茂奇语),
                          
    Nahali (
    纳哈利语), Noiri (诺伊里), Pardhi, Rathawi /Rathwi (拉塔维语), Wagdi
                   ii. Dom:
    Domari
                  iii. Gujarati:
                         
    Aer (埃尔
    ), Gujarati, Jandavra (赞达夫拉), Kachi Koli, Parkari Koli, Wadiyara Koli (瓦迪雅拉科里), Saurashtra,
                          Vaghri (
    瓦戈里语), Vasavi
                  iv. Khandeshi:
    Ahirani, Dhanki (
    丹基语), Khandeshi
                   v. Punjabi:
    Eastern Punjabi
                  vi. Rajastani: 
                           Marwari:
                                Dhatki, Dhundari, Goaria( 瓜里亚
    ), Godwari (戈德瓦里), Jogi (乔吉语), Loarki (洛亚基语), Marwari (India),
                              
     Marwari (Pakistan), Merwari (
    梅尔瓦里语), Mewari, Shekhawati
                           Unclassified:
                                Bagri, Gujari
    , Gurgula (
    古尔古拉语), Harauti (Horoti), Lamani (Lambadi), Gade Lohar, Malvi, Nimadi (尼马迪语)
                 vii. Romani: 
                           Balkan: Balkan Romani,
    Zargari
                           Northern:
    Baltic Romani, Carpathian Romani, Kalo Finnish Romani, Sinte Romani,
    Welsh Romani
                           Vlax:
    Vlax Romani
                viii. Unclassified:
     
                          
    Mewati (
    梅瓦蒂语), Parya, Sonha (松哈语), Dangaura Tharu, Kathoriya Tharu
                  ix. Western Hindi: 
                           
    Bundeli (
    本德里语)
                            Hidustani: Hindi, Urdu
                           
    Sansi:  Kabutra (
    卡布特拉语), Sansi (桑斯)
                          
     Unclassified:
                                 Bhaya (
    巴雅语), Braj Bhasha (莱巴萨语), Chamari, Ghera (格拉), Gowli (里语), Haryanvi, Kanauji (卡瑙基语)  
                   x. Domaaki:
    Dumaaki, Powari (
    波瓦里语)
              d. East-Central zone
    东中区印度-雅利安诸语:
                      
    Awadhi, Bagheli (
    巴格里语), Chhattisgarhi, Hindi,  Fiji Hindi, Kamar (卡马尔语), Surgujia
              e. Eastern zone
    东区印度-雅利安诸语:
                     i. Bengali-Assamese: 
                            Assamese, Bengali,
    Bishnupriya, Chakma, Chittagonian (
    吉大港语), Hajong, Halbi, Kewat (科瓦特语),
                            Kharia Thar (
    卡里亚塔尔语), Kurmukar (库尔穆卡尔语), Lodhi,  Mal Paharia (马尔-帕哈里亚语),  
                           
    Mirgan (米尔甘
    ), Nahari (纳哈力语), Rajbanshi, Rangpuri (朗普里语), Rohingya, Sylhetti (西赫梯), Tangchangy
                    ii. Bihari: 
                          
    Bhojpuri, Sarnami Hindustani (
    苏里南印度斯坦语), Gojapuri, Kudmali (库德马里语), Magahi, Maithili, Majhi (迈希语),
                           
    Musasa (
    穆萨萨语), Panchpargania (潘奇帕尔加尼亚语), Sadri, Oraon Sadri (奥拉昂萨达里), Surjapuri (苏尔贾普里语)
                  iii. Oriya: 
                          
    Bhatri (
    巴特里语), Bhunjia (本贾语), Bodo Parja, Desiya, Kupia, Odia (Oriya), Reli (勒里语), Sambalpuri
                  iv. Unclassified: 

                          
    Angika (
    安吉卡语), Bote-Majhi (博特迈希语), Buksa (布克萨语), Degaru (德贾鲁语), Madhya Ksetriya Tharu (Chitwan Tharu),
                          
    Madhya-Purbiya Tharu (Kochila Tharu)(
    马迪雅-普尔比亚塔鲁语
    ), Rana Tharu
              f. Northern zone
    北区印度-雅利安诸语:
                    i. Eastern Pahari: Dotyali
    (
    多梯亚里语), Jumli (琼里), Nepali, Palpa (帕尔帕语)
                   ii. Garhwari:
    Garhwari, Bangani
                  iii. Kumauni:
    Kumauni
                  iv. Western Pahari: 

                           
    Bhadrawahi (
    巴德拉瓦希语), Bhattiyali (巴梯亚里语), Bilaspuri (比拉斯普里语), Chambeali (昌贝阿里),
                            Churahi (
    楚拉希语), Dogri, Gaddi (贾迪语), Hinduri (欣杜里), Jaunsari, Kangri, Kinnauri Pahari,
                            Mandeali, Kullu Pahari, Mahasu Pahari (
    马哈苏-帕哈里语), Pangwali, Sirmauri (斯尔茂里语)
              h. Southern zone
    南区印度-雅利安诸语
                    Marathi: Marathi

                    Konkani: Katkari (
    卡特卡里语), Konkani, Goan Konkani (果阿孔卡尼语), Kukna, Phudagi (普达吉语), Samvedi (桑维蒂语),
                    Varli, Bhalay(
    莱语), Deccan, Gowlan (兰语), Varhadi-Nagpuri (尔哈迪-纳格普里语)
              i. Unclassified
    未分类印度-雅利安诸语
                     
    Andh (
    安德赫语), Chinali, Danuwar (努瓦里语), Darai, Dewes Rai (德维斯莱语), Kanjari (坎贾里), Kumal (库马尔语),
                     Lahul Lohar (
    拉胡尔洛哈尔语), Memoni (梅莫尼语), Oadki (Od), Vaagri Booli
    3.Nuristani 努里斯坦
    语支: Ashkun, Kamviri, Kati, Prasuni, Tregami (
    特雷加米语), Waigali (Kalasha-ala)
    4.Iranian
    伊朗语支:
          a. Northeastern
    东北伊朗语组: Ossetic, Yaghnobi
          b. Southeastern
    东南伊朗语组:
                  i. Pamir
    米尔高原伊朗诸语
                         Ishkashmi,
    Munji, Sanglechi (
    勒奇
    ), Sarikoli, Shughni, Wakhi, Yazgulyam (Yazgulami), Yadgha (Yidgha )
                 ii. Pashto:

                        
    Central Pashto, Northern Pashto(
    北部普什图语), Southern Pashto, Waneci (瓦内茨)
          c. Northwestern
    西北伊朗语组:
                  i. Balochi: 
                         Eastern Balochi
    (东部俾路支
    ), Southern Balochi, Western Balochi (西部俾路支), Bashkardi (巴斯卡尔迪语), Koroshi
                 ii. Caspian: Gilaki, Mazanderani,
    Shahmirzadi
                iii. Central Iranian:

                        
    Ashtiani (
    阿什梯安语), Gazi (贾兹语), Jowshaqani (沙喀尼), Khunsari (昆萨里语), Natanzi (纳坦兹语), Parsi-Dari (帕尔斯达里语),
                         Parsi (帕尔斯
    ), Sivandi (斯凡迪语), Soi (索伊), Vafsi, Zoroastrian Dari
                iv. Kurdish:

                        
    Central Kurdish, Northern Kurdish (Kurmanji), Southern Kurdish (
    南部库尔德语), Laki
                 v. Ormuri-Parachi: Ormuri, Parachi
                iv. Semnani:
                        
    Lasgerdi (
    拉斯格尔迪语), Sangisar, Semnani, Sorkhei (索尔赫伊语)
               iiv. Talysh:

                        
    Alviri-Vidari (阿尔维里-维达里
    ), Eshtehardi (埃斯特哈尔迪), Gozarkhani (戈扎尔坎语), Harzani, Kabatei (卡巴特伊语),
                         Kajali (
    卡贾里语), Karingani, Kho'ini (科伊因语), Koresh-e Rostam (科雷斯埃-罗斯塔姆), Maraghei (马拉格伊语),
                         Razajerdi (
    拉扎吉尔迪语), Rudbari (鲁德巴里), Shahrudi (沙赫鲁迪), Takestani (塔克斯坦), Talysh,
                        
    Upper Taromi (上部塔罗米
    )
              iiiv. Zaza-Gorani:

                       
    Bajelani (
    巴杰兰语), Gurani (古拉尼语), Sarli (萨尔里语), Shabak (沙巴克语), Northern Zazaki (北部扎扎基语 /Kirmanjki 基尔马尼基语
                       
    Southern Zazaki (Dimli)
          d. Southwestern
    西南伊朗语组:
                 i. Fars:
    Southwestern Fars, Lari
                ii. Luri:
    Bakhtiari, Kumzari, Northern Luri, Southern Luri
              iii. Persian: 

                     
    Aimaq (
    马克), Bukharic (布卡里克语), Dari, Dehwari (德赫瓦里), Dzhidi (德芝迪), Western Farsi (Persian), Hazaragi,
                      Pahlavani (
    帕拉瓦语), Tajiki
               iv. Tati:
    Judeo-Tat, Muslim Tat
          e. Unclassified:
    Badesh (
    巴德斯语)
  3. Albanian 阿尔巴尼亚语:
       
    1. Gheg: Gheg Albanian (盖格阿尔巴尼亚语)

        2. Tosk: Arbëreshë Albanian
    (阿尔伯雷什阿尔巴尼亚语), Arvantika Albanian (阿尔瓦尼蒂卡阿尔巴尼亚语),Tosk
    Albanian (托斯克阿尔巴尼亚语)
  4. Greek 希腊语:
       
    1. Attic: Cappadocian Greek (卡帕多西亚
    希腊语), Greek (希腊语), Ancient Greek (古代希腊语), Pontic Greek (本都希腊语)
        2. Doric: Tsakonian
    (
    特萨科尼恩希腊语)
  5. Italic 意大利:
       1.Latin:
    Latin

       2.Eastern Romance
    东部
    罗曼语
               Rumanian
    , Istro-
    Romanian, Aromanian (Macedo-Romanian), Megleno-Romanian
     
    3.Italo-Western 意大利-西部罗曼语支:
              a. Italo-Dalmatian:
                      Istriot,
    Italian, Judeo-Italian (
    犹太意大利语), Napoletano-Calabrese, Sicilian
              b. Western:
                    i. Gallo-Iberian:
                           Gallo-Romance:
                               Gallo-Italian:  Emiliano, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Romagnol
    (
    罗马涅语) Venetian
                               Gallo-Rhaetian:
                                   
    Oïl:
                                         French, Cajun French
    (
    卡津法语/路易斯安那法语) , Jèrriais (泽西法语 / 耶里亚斯法语), Picard, Walloon
                                         Southeastern: Arpitan / Provençal
    (阿尔卑坦语 /
    法兰科普罗旺斯语)
                                    Rhaetian: Friulian, Ladin, Romansch
                   ii. Iberian-Romance:
                            East Iberian:
    Catalan
                            Oc: Occitan, Shuadit
    (苏阿迪特
    ) / Judeo-Provençal (犹太-法兰科普罗旺斯)
                            West Iberian:
                                 Asturo-Leonese: Asturian, Mirandese
    (
    米兰德斯语)
                                 Castilian:
    Extremaduran, Ladino, Spanish, Charapa Spanish (恰拉帕西班牙语)
                                
    Portuguese-
    Galician: Fala, Galician, Minderico (明德里科语)Portuguese  
                   ii. Pyrenean-Mozarabic: Aragonese
       4.Southern
    南部罗曼语:
              
    a. Corsican: Corsican
               b. Sardinian: 
    Campidanian Sardinian, Gadduresu Sardinian, Logudorese Sardinian, Sassaresu Sardinian  
  6. Celtic 凯尔特语:
        1.
    Brythonic 布里索尼语: Breton, Cornish, Welsh
        2.
    Goidelic 戈伊迪支: Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx
  7. Germanic 日耳曼:
        1.West 西部日耳曼
    :
               a. English: English
    , Modern Scots
               b. Frisian: Western Frisian, Northern Frisian,
    Sater Frisian
              
    c. High German:
      
                    Standard German, Yiddish, Upper Saxon, Lower Silesian,  Luxembourgish, Mainfränkisch
    , Limburgisch, Pennsylvania German,
                       Palatinate Frankish (Pfaelzisch)
    , Cologne Ripuarian (Kölsch), Swiss Alemanic ( Schwyzerdütsch), Swabian,  Walser, Bavarian, 
                     
     Cimbrian, Hutterite German, Mócheno
               d.
    Low Saxon-Low Franconian:
                      
    Afrikaans, Dutch, Western Flemish (Vlaams), Zeelandic (Zeeuws), Low Saxon, Achterhoeks Low Saxon, Groningen Low Saxon (Drents),
                      
    Mennonite Low Saxon (Plautdietsch), Gronings, Twents Low Saxon, Veluws Low Saxon, Sallands Low Saxon, Stellingwerven Low Saxon,
                      
    Westphalian Low Saxon, Eastphalian Low Saxon, Eastern Frisian
        2.North
    部日耳曼:
               a. East Scandinavian:
    Danish, Norwegian, Övdalian (奥夫达利安语) / Elfdalian ( 尔夫达利安), Swedish
               b. West Scandinavian:
    Farorese, Icelandic
  8. Balto-Slavic 波罗的海-斯拉夫:
        1.Baltic 波罗的海语支: 

              a. Eastern: Latgalian (
    特加莱语), Latvian, Lithuanian, Samogitian (萨莫吉提亚语)
              b. Western:
    †Prussian (鲁士)
        2.Slavic
    拉夫语支:
              a. East 东
    拉夫语组:
                       Belarusian, Rusinian, Russian, Ukrainian
              b. South 南
    拉夫语组:
                        i. Eastern: Bulgarian, Macedonian, 
    Church Slovinic (教会拉夫语), Slovene
                       ii. Western:
    Bosnian (波斯尼亚语), Chakavian (查卡维雅语), Croatian (克罗地亚), Montenegrin  (蒙特内哥罗语 / 黑山语),
                           Serbian, Slavomolisano
    (莫利塞斯拉夫语)
                 c. West 西拉夫语组:  
                        i. Czech-Slovak: Czech, Slovak
                       ii. Lechtic: Kashubian, Polish,
    Silesian (西里西亚)
                      iii. Sorbian: Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian

   注明:语言名称和语言组名称之前面有一个匕首 ()号的是已经灭绝的语言


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