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Kualan and Samandang
Kualan and Samandang are two closely related members of the Land Dayak (Bidayuhic) language group, spoken in western Borneo, along two rivers of the same names. Until the 20th century, the Kualan and Samandang Dayaks were serfs of a small Malay kingdom based in Balai Berkuak. This master-client relationship, which apparently lasted for many centuries, has deeply affected the speech of both communities. In the case of the Dayak communities, strong interference from Malay has lead to massive lexical replacement, including basic vocabulary items, function words, and even affixes. However, many distinctly non-Malay structural features have been maintained, such as an object focus infix and obligatory classifiers.
Last modified: 19 April 2004