Language name and locationː Yana, California state, USA [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区雅纳, 美国西部加利福尼亚州中北部地区


1. bai(gu)

2. ux(si)

3. bul(mićigu)

4. daumi(gu)

5. žimad(gu)

6. bunxadʔi

7. uxmami

8. bulmami

9. daumima

10. xaažad


Linguist providing data and dateː Mr. Mark Rosenfelder, The Author of the website "Numbers from 1 to 10 in over 5000 languages", Chicago, USA, October 7 2023.

提供资的语言: Mr. Mark Rosenfelder, 2023 年 10 月 7 日.


Other comments: The Yana language (also Yanan) is an extinct language that was formerly spoken by the Yana people, who lived in north-central California between the Feather and Pit rivers in what is now the Shasta and Tehama counties. The last speaker of the southernmost dialect, which is called Yahi, was Ishi, who died in 1916. When the last fluent speaker(s) of the other dialects died is not recorded. Yana is fairly well documented, mostly by Edward Sapir.
The names Yana and Yahi are derived from ya "people" plus an obligatory suffix, -na in the northern two dialects and -hi or -xi in the southern two dialects.
Regional variation (There are four known dialects):
Northern Yana
, Central Yana, Southern Yana, Yahi
Northern Yana, Central Yana, and Yahi were well recorded by Edward Sapir through work with Betty Brown, Sam Batwi, and Ishi respectively. Only a small collection of words and phrases of Southern Yana (more properly, Northern Yahi)  were recorded by Sapir in his work with Sam Batwi, who spoke the dialect only in his childhood. Because Southern Yana is poorly attested, it is unclear how many additional subdialects there may have been.
Northern and Central Yana are close, differing mainly in phonology (mostly by innovations in Northern Yana), and Southern Yana and Yahi are similarly close. The two pairs differ from each other in phonological, lexical, and grammatical elements, and can only be understood by the other side with difficulty.
Classification: Yana is often classified in the Hokan superstock. Sapir suggested a grouping of Yana within a Northern Hokan sub-family with Karuk, Chimariko, Shastan, Palaihnihan, and Pomoan. Contemporary linguists generally consider Yana to be a language isolate.
Characteristics: Yana employs 22 consonants and 5 vowels. It is polysynthetic and agglutinative, with a subject-verb-object word order. Verbs contain much meaning through affixation. Like some other California languages, direction is very important: All verbs of motion must contain a different directional affix.
Unlike other languages of the region, Yana has different word forms used by male and female speakers.  

Northern dialect of Yana language has only recorded traditional numerals from 1 to 10 many years ago, not sure if they were used a traditional decimal or vigesimal system before, New data for numbers after ten is required.