Language name and location: Wambule, Nepal [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区宛布勒 (乔拉塞Chourase), 尼泊尔东部戈斯省  


1. kwalo ~ kwal  

2. dui  < Nepali  *

3. tin < Nepali

4. car < Nepali

5. pãn < Nepali

6. chʌ < Nepali

7. sat < Nepali

8. aʈʰ < Nepali

9. nʌu < Nepali

10. dʌs < Nepali

11. egʰarʌ < Nepali

12. barʌ < Nepali


Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Jean Robert Opgenort, Department of Linguistics,  University of Berne, Switzerland, July 7, 2013.

提供资的语言家: Dr. Jean Robert Opgenort, 2013 年 7 月 7 日.


Other comments: With the general exception of the native word kwalo ~ kwal ‘one’, the Wambule numerals used in everyday conversation are loans from Nepali. In their trade negotiations with other clans, however, the Wambule tribesmen sometimes use so called ‘secretive’ forms, of which I have been able to record nisi ‘two’, tin bryamci ‘three fingers’ for the numeral ‘three’, cyaŋbwaŋti ‘four’, kwal la-bryam ‘five’ and dui labryam ten’. The latter two literally translate as ‘one hand finger’ and two hand finger’, although bryamci is the word general used for ‘finger’. Hodgson (1857: 341) lists the ‘Chouras’ya’ forms kolo ‘one’, nik’si ‘two’, súm’makha ‘three’ and phíbakha ‘four’. The ordinary numerals one to twelve are listed above. The native numeral kwalo ~ kwal ‘one’ is considered a nominal on morphosyntactic grounds. Numerals which are used as an argument take the markers required by Wambule grammar. Numerals usually precede other adnominal modifiers. The numeral kwalo ~ kwal ‘one’ is a very interesting form, since its ongoing use seems to be connected to the fact that this word does not only serve to indicate exactly one entity of a certain species, but is also be used as the equivalent of the English indefinite article a. The numeral kwalo ~ kwal ‘one’ can be analysed as a lexicalised combination of the bound morpheme <kwa·> ‘one’ plus the locative marker <·lo>. The bound morpheme <kwa·> ‘one’ is also found in the reduplicative compound adjective kwa?-kwa? ‘each, either, separately’ and the partly reduplicated quantifier kwakwalo ~ kwakwal ‘some, any’. The partly reduplicated form kwalo-kwal expresses the sense of one by one, one at a time, by turns’.

Language name and location: Wambule (Chourase), Nepal [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区宛布勒 (乔拉塞), 尼泊尔


1. kwalo ~ kwal   (SIL source)

2. nimpʰa ~ niksi (SIL source)

3. summakʰa

4. tsar < Nepali ~ ph^ibakʰa *

5. pãn

6. kollabremci  ( one hand )/ tsʰʌ

7. sat

8. aʈʰ

9. nʌu

10. dʌs

11. nimpʰalabremci / egʰarʌ


Linguist providing data and dateː Prof. Jadranka Gvozdanović, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands, July 18, 1994. Additional data provided by ː Ms. Mari-Sisko Khadgi and Mr. David Rutherford, Neapl, March 15, 2007.

提供资的语言: Prof. Jadranka Gvozdanović, 1994 年 7 月 18 日.


Other comments: Wambule only has three traditional numerals, above three, the Nepali numeral forms are used instead. They also express 'five' and 'ten' by 'one hand' and ' two hands', respectively. According to SIL updated data, currently, the Wambule people only preserved the indigenous number 'one' in everyday use. Hodgson had recorded indigenous numbers up to four in 1857.


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