Language name and location: Rawang (Krvngku), Myanmar [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区语 (Krvngku方言), 缅甸


1. əmə́j

21. əɲí sə́l əmə́j

2. əɲí

22. əɲí sə́l əní

3. əsɨ̀m

23. əɲí sə́l əsɨ̀m

4. ədʒì

24. əɲí sə́l ədʒì

5. pùŋà

25. əɲí sə́l pùŋà

6. təruʔ

26. əɲí sə́l təruʔ

7. səŋĭt

27. əɲí sə́l səŋĭt

8. tʃat

28. əɲí sə́l tʃat

9. dəɡɨ̀

29. əɲí sə́l dəɡɨ̀

10. əmə́j sə́l

30. əsɨ̀m sə́l

11. əmə́j sə́l əmə́j

40. ədʒì sə́l

12. əmə́j sə́l əɲí

50. pùŋà sə́l

13. əmə́j sə́l əsɨ̀m

60. təruʔ sə́l

14. əmə́j sə́l ədʒì

70. səŋĭt sə́l

15. əmə́j sə́l pùŋà

80. tʃət sə́l

16. əmə́j sə́l təruʔ

90. dəɡɨ̀ sə́l

17. əmə́j sə́l səŋĭt

100. əmə́j já

18. əmə́j sə́l tʃat

200. əɲí já   400. ədʒì já   800. tʃat já

19. əmə́j sə́l dəɡɨ̀

1000. əmə́j kíŋ

20. əní sə́l

2000. əɲí kíŋ


Linguist providing data and dateː Mr. Nathan Straub, MA in Linguistics, Language Enhancement Centre, Payap University, Thailand, July 17, 2018, August 4, 2018

供资料的语言学家: 曹内森先生 (泰国西北大学), 2018 年 7 月 17 日, 8 月 4 日.


Other comments: Krvngku Rawang has a decimal system. Krvngku dialect is spoken in southern Lungmi, Rvwàng, from Rv́zà village, on the upper Krang stream, an eastern tributary of the Mvliq river in Kachin State, Myanmar. The village is no longer in existence, due to war, and residents have been dispersed since the mid-1960s. Data provided by Mvniq Guq Samuel in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

   The phonology of this dialect has not been fully analyzed yet. In general, however, this dialect has a similar phonemic system to Mvtwàng Rvwàng (R. Morse 1962/1963; S. Morse 1988, 1989) and Rvmø̀l Rvwàng (Straub 2016). 

   There are three tones on syllables that do not have stop finals, based on a scale of 5 (highest) to 1 (lowest): High /á/ 55~53, Mid /a/ 33, Low /à/ 31~11. Tone on syllables with final p/t/k/ or ʔ (the latter considered a tone-register complex) is non-distinctive, usually realized as high or high falling. Tone on minor syllables (Cə) is non-distinctive as well.

    Vowels: i, e [e~ɛ], a, u, o [o~ɔ], ə, ɨ. Initial consonants: p, b, t, d, k, g, s, z [dz], ts, tʃ, dʒ, m, n, ɲ, ŋ, h [h~x], j, l, r [ɹ~r~ɾ]. Voiceless stops and affricates are aspirated, although this is not indicated in the transcription for brevity's sake.

    Final consonants: p, t, k, m, n, ŋ, l, r, j.

    Diphthongs include /aj, əj, ɨj, uj, oj/. /ɨj/ is usually realized with a slightly longer vowel: [ɨˑj]; /aj/ may be considered an inherently-long-vowel counterpart to /əj/. Clusters observed include: /bl, pr, br, kr, gr/. The cluster /mj/ is found in Burmese loanwords, and the cluster /dw/ in Jinghpaw loanwords.

    In terms of phonological processes, two are observable here: 

    (1) Palatalization: The initial consonant /n/ becomes /ɲ/ when followed by the vowel /i/, e.g. əní sə́l→əɲí sə́l 'twenty'. Although this nasal palatalization is a regular process, the palatal nasal forms are given in the transcription here without abstracting them to their original alveolar nasal form /n/. The palatal nasal consonant also appears before other vowels, such as /a/ in /ɲaʔù/ 'to swallow', so it can definitely be considered a separate phoneme in the latter environment. 

   (2) Reduction to affricates: The numeral 4 is rendered /əblì/ in Dvrù and /əbrì/ in Mvpang Dvngsar, but in this dialect the *b{l,r} cluster is reduced to the affricate /dʒ/ as /ədʒì/.

  Morse, Robert H. 1962. Hierarchical levels of Rawang phonology. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University MA thesis in linguistics.
  Morse, Robert H. 1963. Phonology of Rawang. Anthropological Linguistics 5(5).
  Morse, Stephen A. 1988. A short update on Rawang phonology. Linguistics of the
  Tibeto-Burman Area 11(2). 120–132.
  Morse, Stephen A. 1989. Five Rawang dialects compared plus more. In David
  Bradley, Eugénie J. A. Henderson & Martine Mazaudon (eds.), Prosodic analysis and
  Asian linguistics: to honour R. K. Sprigg, 237–250. (Pacific Linguistics C-104).
  Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  Straub, Nathan. 2016. Direction and time reference in the Rvmøl (Dvru) dialect of
  Rawang, from northern Myanmar. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Payap University MA thesis
  in linguistics.


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