Language name and location: Rawang (Dvrú), Myanmar [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区语 (Dvrú方言),  缅甸


1. tiʔ (citation); ti (when combined with a classifier, e.g. ti-joʔ 'one-person' or a digit place-holder such as sə́n 'ten')

21. tisə́n tiʔ

2. əní

22. tisə́n əní

3. əsɨ̀m

23. tisə́n əsɨ̀m

4. əblì

24. tisə́n əblì

5. pəŋà

25. tisə́n pəŋà

6. kruʔ

26. tisə́n kruʔ

7. səŋit

27. tisə́n səŋit

8. ʃət

28. tisə́n ʃət

9. dəɡɨ̀

29. tisə́n dəɡɨ̀

10. tisə́n

30. əsɨ̀m sə́n

11. tisə́n tiʔ

40. əblì sə́n

12. tisə́n əní

50. pəŋà sə́n

13. tisə́n əsɨ̀m

60. kruʔ sə́n

14. tisə́n əblì

70. səŋit sə́n

15. tisə́n pəŋà

80. ʃət sə́n

16. tisə́n kruʔ

90. dəɡɨ̀ sə́n

17. tisə́n səŋit

100. tijá

18. tisə́n ʃət

200. əní já,  400. əblì já,  800. ʃət já

19. tisə́n dəɡɨ̀

1000. tikíŋ

20. əní sə́n

2000. əní kíŋ


Linguist providing data and dateː Mr. Nathan Straub, MA in Linguistics, Language Enhancement Centre, Payap University, Thailand, July 17, 2018, August 4, 2018.

供资料的语言学家: 曹内森先生 (泰国西北大学), 2018 年 7 月 17 日, 8 月 4 日.


Other comments: Dvrù Rawang has a decimal system. Dvrù dialect of Rvwàng, Konglang and Sangnay clans. Originally spoken on the upper Rvmetì (N'mai Hka) river north of Konglangpø and also in Nokmong, Putao District, Kachin State, Myanmar. Data provided by Konglang Zineng in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    The phonology of this dialect has not been fully analyzed yet. In general, however, this dialect has a similar phonemic system to Mvtwàng Rvwàng (R. Morse 1962/1963; S. Morse 1988, 1989) and Rvmø̀l Rvwàng (Straub 2016).

    There are three tones on syllables that do not have stop finals, based on a scale of 5 (highest) to 1 (lowest): High/rising 35, Mid a 22~221, Low/falling 42~31. Tone on syllables with final p/t/k or ʔ (the latter considered a tone-register complex) is non-distinctive, usually realized as high or high falling. Tone on minor syllables (Cə) is non-distinctive as well. Occasionally a distinct 55 tone will appear on certain particles, or a low-rising 24~34 tone, often associated with first person verb conjugations. Also, vowel length is distinctive for marking grammatical meaning changes, and when the vowel of a stop-final syllable is lengthened, its tone usually becomes mid-rising 24.

Vowels: i, e [e~ɛ], a, u, o [o~ɔ], ə, ɨ.

Initial consonants: p, b, t, d, k, g, s, z [dz], ts, tʃ, dʒ, m, n, ɲ, ŋ, h [h~x], j, l, r [ɹ~r~ɾ]. Voiceless stops and affricates are aspirated, although this is not indicated in the transcription for brevity's sake.

Final consonants: p, t, k, m, n, ŋ, r, j.

The diphthongs aj, əj, ɨj, uj, oj and the initial clusters ml, pl, bl, kl, ɡl, pr, br, kr, ɡr, kw, ɡw, hw have been observed. In certain words, aj is followed by a glottal stop (ajʔ), lending strength to the analysis of ʔ as a tone-register complex.

In terms of phonological processes, two are observable here:

(1) Glottal stop elision: In citation form, 'one' is tiʔ. However, when combined with a following syllable, it loses the glottal stop, as in tisə́n 'ten'.

(2) The historical final lateral consonant *l is realized as n as in ti-sə́n < *tiʔ-sə́l 'ten'.

  Morse, Robert H. 1962. Hierarchical levels of Rawang phonology. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University MA thesis in linguistics.
  Morse, Robert H. 1963. Phonology of Rawang. Anthropological Linguistics 5(5).
  Morse, Stephen A. 1988. A short update on Rawang phonology. Linguistics of the
  Tibeto-Burman Area 11(2). 120–132.
  Morse, Stephen A. 1989. Five Rawang dialects compared plus more. In David
  Bradley, Eugénie J. A. Henderson & Martine Mazaudon (eds.), Prosodic analysis and
  Asian linguistics: to honour R. K. Sprigg, 237–250. (Pacific Linguistics C-104).
  Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  Straub, Nathan. 2016. Direction and time reference in the Rvmøl (Dvru) dialect of
  Rawang, from northern Myanmar. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Payap University MA thesis
  in linguistics.


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