Language name and locationː Oroha, Malaita, Solomon Islands [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区: 奥罗哈语, 所罗门群岛马莱塔岛南部 


1. eetɑ

21.  ɾuɑ ɑɑwaɾɑ mɑnɑ eetɑ

2. ɾ

22.  ɾuɑ ɑɑwaɾɑ mɑnɑ ɾ

3. ooɾu

23.  ɾuɑ ɑɑwaɾɑ mɑnɑ ooɾu

4. hɑi

24.  ɾuɑ ɑɑwaɾɑ mɑnɑ hɑi

5. nimɑ (< lima 'hand')

25.  ɾuɑ ɑɑwaɾɑ mɑnɑ nimɑ

6. oono

26.  ɾuɑ ɑɑwaɾɑ mɑnɑ oono

7. hiu

27.  ɾuɑ ɑɑwaɾɑ mɑnɑ hiu

8. wɑɾu

28.  ɾuɑ ɑɑwaɾɑ mɑnɑ wɑɾu

9. siwɑ

29.  ɾuɑ ɑɑwaɾɑ mɑnɑ siwɑ

10. tɑnɑhuɾu

30.  ooɾu ɑɑwaɾɑ

11. tɑnɑhuɾu mɑna eetɑ

40.  hɑi ɑɑwaɾɑ

12. tɑnɑhuɾu mɑna ɾ

50.  nimɑ ɑɑwaɾɑ

13. tɑnɑhuɾu mɑna ooɾu

60.  oono ɑɑwaɾɑ

14. tɑnɑhuɾu mɑna hɑi

70.  hiu ɑɑwaɾɑ

15. tɑnɑhuɾu mɑna nimɑ

80.  wɑɾu ɑɑwaɾɑ

16. tɑnɑhuɾu mɑna oono

90.  siwɑ ɑɑwaɾɑ 

17. tɑnɑhuɾu mɑna hiu

100. tanaɾɑu, 110. tanaɾɑu (nɑ) aɑwɑɾɑ

18. tɑnɑhuɾu mɑna wɑɾu

111. tanaɾɑu aɑwɑɾɑ mɑnɑ eetɑ

19. tɑnɑhuɾu mɑna siwɑ

120. tanaɾɑu ɾuɑ aɑwɑɾɑ, 1000. sinorɑ

20. ɾuɑ ɑɑwaɾɑ

1000000. peɾɑ


Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Darren Flavelle, School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. November 9, 2021.
供资料的语言学家Dr. Darren Flavelle, 2021 年 11 月 9 日


Other commentsː Oroha has a very regular, base ten counting system, as you can see. Tanahuru is almost exclusively used in counting, if you count to ten you use tanahuru (you can also say aawara, but it is rarer), if there are ten things, you say aawara, never tanahuru; if you are counting past ten, you will still only use tanahuru for ten, not for twenty *rua tanahuru. It might be better to translate aawara as 'a group of ten'.
The na in parentheses above means 'and' which can be used with 110, but seemingly not with any other number, or at least I have no data with a speaker saying, for example, *tanarau na rua aawara mana hiu (127); they would omit the na.
There is also mora which can mean "uncountable; a lot" which is most commonly used with mass nouns, though can be used for count nouns, or in more metaphorical senses.
for a particularly large number, they will commonly just mora, but if they wanted to be specific they could say, for example, 3,759,804 which would be ooru pera hiu tanahuru nima aawara mana siwa sinora waru tanahuru mana hai. Just like English this gets very long when written out.
For dates (specifically years) they almost always use phonemicised English, for example, nainutiini nainiti wani, "nineteen ninty one" (in casual speech a syncope/apocope rule applies, and it often sounds like naintiin nainti wan). They did not reckon dates before colonialism, so they used English as the default, even when speaking in fluent Oroha.
Oroha is a critically endangered Austronesian language (7 on the EGIDS scale) spoken fluently by fewer than one hundred people; it is one of the most endangered languages in the Solomon Islands. Four villages on Small Malaita host all the fluent speakers of Oroha, the majority of those speakers are middle-aged or older, there are semi-speakers of Oroha found in other cities such as Auki and Honiara.


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