Language name and locationː Xong, Hunan province, China [Refer to Ethnologue]
语言名称和分布地区: 湖南凤凰县岩坎村, 湖南湘西土家族苗族自治州凤凰县


1. ɑ3

21.  ɛɯ1 ɡu4 ɑ3

2. ɛɯ1

22.  ɛɯ1 ɡu4 ɛɯ1

3. bu1

23.  ɛɯ1 ɡu4 bu1

4. biɤj1

24.  ɛɯ1 ɡu4 biɤj1

5. biɑ1

25.  ɛɯ1 ɡu4 biɑ1

6. tʂu5

26.  ɛɯ1 ɡu4 tʂu5

7. tɕõ6

27.  ɛɯ1 ɡu4 tɕõ6

8. i4

28.  ɛɯ1 ɡu4 i4

9. tɕo2

29.  ɛɯ1 ɡu4 tɕo2

10. ɡu4

30.  bu1 ɡu4  

11. ɑ3 ɡu4 ɑ3

40.  biɤj1 ɡu4

12. ɑ3 ɡu4 ɛɯ1

50.  biɑ1 ɡu4  

13. ɑ3 ɡu4 bu1

60.  tʂu5 ɡu4

14. ɑ3 ɡu4 biɤj1

70.  tɕõ6 ɡu4  

15. ɑ3 ɡu4 biɑ1

80.  i4 ɡu4

16. ɑ3 ɡu4 tʂu5

90.  tɕo2 ɡu4 

17. ɑ3 ɡu4 tɕõ6

100. ɑ3 ba5  < Chinese

18. ɑ3 ɡu4 i4

200. ɛɯ1 ba5

19. ɑ3 ɡu4 tɕo2

1000. ɑ3 tsʰã1 < Chinese

20. ɛɯ1 ɡu4   

2000. ɛɯ1 tsʰã1


Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Adam Sposato, Department of Linguistics,

State University of New York at Buffalo, USA. November 12, 2012
提供资的语言学家: Dr. Adam Sposato, 2012 年 11 月 12 日.


Other comments: Xong or Western Xiangxi Miao has a decimal system. The above data were based on the Xong language (ISO 639-3 code mmr), specifically, the variety spoken in Yankan Village in Fenghuang County, Hunan Province, Southwest China.

1. Most varieties of Fenghuang Xong have 7 syllable-level tones. These have been

    represented with numerals following each syllable in the table above.

2. Note that the form ‘six’ begins with an apical-palatal affricate (/t/, with a dot under

    the < s >), not an alveolar one.

3. Martha Ratliff argues in her book Hmong-Mien Language History (2010: 214­ – 218)

   that all Miao-Yao numerals aside from ‘two’ and ‘three’ (and possibly ‘five’ and

   ‘seven’) are likely borrowings from various Sino-Tibetan languages, although they

   might have been borrowed well over a thousand years ago.

4. The two forms meaning ‘thousand’ (i.e. /tshã1/ and /tɕhɛ3/) are in free variation.

   Both are borrowings from Sinitic (likely Fenghuang Chinese), although on purely

   phonetic grounds I’d guess that /tɕhɛ3/ is a more recent borrowing than /tshã1/.

5. I’ve included a rough phoneme and tone inventory of Yankan Xong, the variety of

   Fenghuang Xong with which I’m most familiar. The IPA values of each phoneme are

   given to the left, and the corresponding symbols I’m using in my practical

   orthography are given to the right. You’ll note I haven’t included any information on

   tones in the sketch, mainly because I’m in the field at the moment and I haven’t had

   the time to look at the relevant spectrograms in detail yet. There’s a large amount of

   phonetic variation among the tones of different varieties of Fenghuang Xong, but

   a rough characterization of the particularly salient aspects of Yankan Xong’s tones

   would be as follows:

Tone 1: falling (from mid to low); light creaky voicing.

Tone 2: high pitch; level or slightly rising pitch contour; noticeably short


Tone 3: falling (from high to low).

Tone 4: falling (from high to low); heavy breathy voicing.

Tone 5: rises sharply from low to high, then falls slightly at the end.

Tone 6: mid pitch; level pitch contour; light breathy voicing.

Tone 7: mid pitch; level or slightly rising pitch contour.

Language name and locationː Western Xiangxi Miao, China [Refer to Ethnologue]
语言名称和分布地区: 湖南花恒腊乙坪苗, 湖南湘西土家族苗族自治州花恒


1. ɑ44

21.  ɯ35 ku33 ɑ44

2. ɯ35

22.  ɯ35 ku33 ɯ35

3. pu35

23.  ɯ35 ku33 pu35

4. pʐei35

24.  ɯ35 ku33 pʐei35

5. pʐɑ35

25.  ɯ35 ku33 pʐa35

6. ʈɔ53

26.  ɯ35 ku33 ʈɔ53

7. tɕoŋ42

27.  ɯ35 ku33 tɕoŋ42

8. ʑi33

28.  ɯ35 ku33 ʑi33

9. tɕo31

29.  ɯ35 ku33 tɕo31

10. ku33

30.  pu53 ku33 

11. ɑ44 ku33 ɑ44

40.  pʐei35 ku33

12. ɑ44 ku33 ɯ35

50.  pʐɑ35 ku33

13. ɑ44 ku33 pu35

60.  ʈɔ53 ku33

14. ɑ44 ku33 pʐei35

70.  tɕoŋ42 ku33 

15. ɑ44 ku33 pʐɑ35

80.  ʑi35 ku33

16. ɑ44 ku33 ʈɔ53

90.  tɕo31 ku33 

17. ɑ44 ku33 tɕoŋ42

100. ɑ44 pa53 < Chinese

18. ɑ44 ku33 ʑi33

200. ɯ35 pa53

19. ɑ44 ku33 tɕo31

1000. ɑ44 tsʰɛ35 < Chinese

20. ɯ35 ku33  

2000. ɯ35 tsʰɛ35


Linguist providing data and dateː Prof. Chen Qiguang, Minzu University of China, Beijing, China, November 24, 1993
提供资的语言学家: 陈其光教授(北京中央民族大学 ), 1993 年 11 月 24 日.


Other comments: Western Xiangxi Miao has a decimal system. The above data were based on Layiping Miao, spoken in Huaheng county, Hunan Province, South China.

Western Xiangxi Miao (mmr). Alternate Names: Eastern Miao, Ghao-Xong, Hsianghsi Miao, Huayuan Miao, Meo Do, Northern Miao, Red Meo, Red Miao, West Hunan Miao, Western Ghao-Xong, Western West-Hunan Miao, Xong, is spoken by approximately 820,000 speakers (Wang and Mao 1995) in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Nandan county, Hechi municipality; Guizhou province: Songtao county, southeast Chongqing and Tongren municipalities, Xiushan and Youyang counties; Hubei province: Xuan’en county; Hunan province: Baojing, Fenghuang, Guzhang, Huadan, Jishou, Longshan, and Xinhuang Mayang counties, China.

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