Language name and locationː Mayangna, Karawala, Nicaragua [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区: 马扬纳语 (北部苏莫语 Northern Sumo), 尼加拉瓜南加勒比海自治区卡拉瓦拉村 


1. as (lah)  

21.  muih as luih minit as

2. bu  

22.  muih as luih minit bu

3. bas

23.  muih as luih minit bas

4. aruŋka

24.  muih as luih minit aruŋka

5. siŋka *  from Spanish loanword

25.  muih as luih minit siŋka

6. tiaskau as   (5+1)

26.  muih as luih minit tiaskau as  

7. tiaskau bu  (5+2)

27.  muih as luih minit tiaskau bu  

8. tiaskau bas (5+3)

28.  muih as luih minit tiaskau bas   

9. tiaskau aruŋka (5+4)  

29.  muih as luih minit tiaskau aruŋka  

10. salap

30.  muih as luih minit kau salap

11. salap minit as  

40.  muih as luih bu

12. salap minit bu

50.  muih as luih bu minit kau salap

13. salap minit bas  

60.  muih as luih bas

14. salap minit aruŋka

70.  muih as luih bas minit kau salap

15. salap minit siŋka

80.  muih as luih aruŋka

16. matawalsip tiaskau as

90.  muih as luih aruŋka minit kau salap

17. matawalsip tiaskau bu

100. basni as / andat  (andat < English )

18. matawalsip tiaskau bas

200. basni bu  /  andat bu

19. matawalsip tiaskau aruŋka

1000. tawsin as  (tawsin< English )

20. muih as luih



Linguist providing data and dateː Prof. Ken Hale, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, January 24, 1991.

提供资的语言: Prof. Ken Hale, 1991 年 1 月 24 日.


Other comments: Mayangna or Northern Sumo, Ulúa, Woolwa is spoken by approximately 350 speakers out of 700 ethnic population in South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region: Karawala village, Nicaragua.

The indigenous groups previously known collectively as the 'Sumu' have never spoken a single, unified language. The language spoken around Rosita and Bonanza in the north-eastern part of the RAAN, and today known as 'Mayangna', is in fact two closely related dialects, Twahka and Panamahka. Meanwhile the ulwa people of Karawala in the RAAS, who were also formerly regarded as 'Sumu', speak a closely related sister-language called Ulwa. Both languages belong to the Misumalpan language family. The name "ulwa" was mentioned for the first time in 1586, with different spellings: oldwe, ulwa, ulba, wulwa, woolwa, ulúa.
Today, most people speak Mayangna at home but can also speak Miskito in order to interact with the communities around them, and the existence of the Ulwa language is regarded as increasingly threatened by this shift to Miskito.

Mayangna or Northern Sumo has a vigesimal system with substructures from 6 to 9. There are English loanwords 100 andat  and 1,000 tawsin. The data were taken from Northern Sumo dialect and the number for 5 siŋka appears to be a Spanish loanword, too.