Language name and locationː Lishanid Noshań, Israel [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区利莎尼德诺山语, 以色列


1. xa

21.  ʔis'ri-w xa

2. tre

22.  ʔis'ri-w tre

3. tˁlaˈhˁa / tilhˁa

23.  ʔis'ri-w tˁlaˈhˁa

4. ʔar'ba 

24.  ʔis'ri-w ʔar'ba 

5. xam'ʃa

25.  ʔis'ri-w xam'ʃa

6. ʔiʃ'ta

26.  ʔis'ri-w ʔiʃ'ta

7. ʃo'ʔa

27.  ʔis'ri-w ʃoʔa

8. tma'nya  

28.  ʔis'ri-w tma'nya

9. ʔit͡ʃˁa

29.  ʔis'ri-w ʔit͡ʃˁa

10. ʔis'ra

30.  tˁla'hi

11. xe'sar

40.  ʔar'bi

12. tre'sar

50.  xam'ʃi

13. talta'sar

60.  ʔəʃ'ti

14. ʔarba'sar

70.  ʃoʔ'i

15. xamʃa'sar

80.  tma'ni / tˁmaˁan'yi

16. ʔiʃta'sar

90.  ʔi't͡ʃˁi

17. ʃoʔa'sar

100. ʔimma

18. tˁmaˁni'sar /  tˁmaˁaya'sar

200. 'tre-mma

19. ʔit͡ʃˁasar

1000. ʔalpa

20. ʔis'ri

2000. 'tre ʔal'pa


Linguist providing data and dateː Prof. Geoffrey Khan, Department of Hebrew and Semitic Studies, Faculty of Asian and Middle East Study, University of Cambridge, UK.

University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany. March 25, 2013

供资料的语言学家: Prof. Geoffrey Khan, 2013 年 3 月 25 日.


Other comments: Lishanid Noshań has a decimal system. The Jewish dialect of Sulemaniyya (Lishanid Noshań) numbers 1-10 are of invariable form and are not inflected for gender. They derive historically from the form used with masculine nouns in earlier Aramaic.

The forms tˁlaˈhˁa and tilhˁa are used interchangeably, the second of these being the result of a syllabic restructuring (tilhˁa < tˁlaˈhˁa < tˁlaːˈtˁaː*). The has developed from an original * due to the pharyngalization of the word induced by the when contiguous with the preceding. In the variant form the pharyngalization of the first syllable has been lost. Numerals 11-19ː

These also are invariable and derive historically from the form that was originally used with masculine nouns:

Unlike tˁlaˈhˁa , the numeral is pronounced without pharyngalization. A pharyngal /ˁ/ occurs in the word that is a secondary development (< * tmaːayaː-'sar). This has apparently arisen as a result of the pharyngalization of the word, which, in turn, is likely to have been induced by the consonant /m/. The pharyngalization does not occur in the unit numeral tma'nya 'eight'. In the variant form tˁmaˁaya'sar the syllable containing the pharyngeal is split by an epenthetic vowel.

The form
tˁla'hi < tlaːtˁiːn *) exhibits pharyngalization of the initial consonant. Unlike tˁlaˈhˁa 'three'. however, the * shifts to /h/ but is not pharyngalized to /hˁ/ , probably due to the adjacent high vowel  /i/. The alternative form for eighty tˁmaˁan'yi exhibits pharyngalization and the secondary development of the pharyngeal /ˁ/.


100.ʔimma, 200. 'tre-mma, 300. tˁlaˈhˁa-mma, til'hˁa-mma, 400. ʔar'ba-mma,

500. xam'ʃa-mma, 600. ʔiʃ'ta-mma, 700. ʃo'ʔa, 800. tma'nya-mma, 900. ʔit͡ʃˁa-mma

The stress is normally placed on the unit numeral, in conformity with common practice in stress groups containing a numeral. The secondary germination of the in the form (< * maː) is likely to have arisen due to the occurrence of this preceding stress. The form ʔimma with the prosthetic vowel would have developed by analogy with the forms with -mma .


1,000. ʔalpa, 2,000.'tre ʔal'pa, 3,000. tˁlaˈhˁa ʔal'pa, til'hˁa ʔal'pa, 4,000. ʔar'ba ʔal'pa,  5,000. xam'ʃa ʔal'pa, etc.

The word ʔal'pa remains singular when preceded by a numerator, as is the case with the word -mma 'hundred'

Combination of numerals

The numerals are combined in descending order, each linked by the conjunction w,
ʔis'ri-w xa '21', ʔis'ri-w tre '22', ʔimma-w ʃoʔ'i-w ʔar'ba 174, til'hˁa ʔal'pa-u xam'ʃa-mma,-u ʔis'ri-u til'hˁa '3,523'.

Inter-Zab Jewish Neo-Aramaic or Lishanid Noshań is a modern Jewish-Aramaic dialect, a variant of Northeastern Neo-Aramaic. It was originally spoken in Kurdistan Region of Iraq, in and around Arbil between the Great Zab and Little Zab rivers. Most speakers now live in Israel. Lishanid Noshan began to be replaced in the speech of younger generations by Modern Hebrew. Fewer than 3,000 people are known to speak Lishanid Noshan, and most of them are over 40 years old. The language faces extinction in the next few decades.


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