Language name and locationː Lishán Didán, Israel, Iran, Turkey [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区利山迪丹语, 以色列, 伊朗, 土耳其


1. xa

21.  əsri-w xa

2. tre

22.  əsri-w tre

3. taha

23.  əsri-w taha

4. arba 

24.  əsri-w arba 

5. xamʃa

25.  əsri-w xamʃa

6. əʃta

26.  əsri-w əʃta

7. uʃwa

27.  əsri-w uʃwa

8. tmanya  

28.  əsri-w tmanya

9. ət͡ʃːa

29.  əsri-w ət͡ʃːa

10. əsra

30.  tahi

11. xesːar

40.  arbi

12. tresːar

50.  xamʃi

13. taltasːar

60.  əʃti

14. arbasːar

70.  uʃwoi

15. xamʃasːar

80.  tmoni

16. əʃtasːar

90.  ə't͡ʃːi

17. uʃwasːar

100. əmma

18. tmanesːar

200. 'tre-mme

19. ət͡ʃːasːar

1000. alpa

20. əsri

2000. 'tre alpe, tr-alpe


Linguist providing data and dateː Prof. Geoffrey Khan, Department of Hebrew and Semitic Studies, Faculty of Asian and Middle East Study, University of Cambridge, UK.

University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany. March 26, 2013

供资料的语言学家: Prof. Geoffrey Khan, 2013 年 3 月 26 日.


Other comments: Lishán Didán has a decimal system. The Jewish Urmi dialect of Lishán Didán numbers 1-10 are of invariable form and are not inflected for gender. They derive historically from the form used with masculine nouns in earlier Aramaic.

The form taha, which is pronounced velarized,  has developed from tlatˠa.  The velarization has developed from an original emphatic cluster * tˁlˁ, which occurs at the onset of the numeral in many NENA dialects. The medial * t̠ has been weakened to the laryngeal /h/. In some Jewish dialects on the eastern periphery of the NENA area the numeral has the pharyngeal /h/, e.g. J. Sulemaniyya tˁlahˁa, which may have been a secondary development from /h/ in an emphatic environment.

Numerals 11-19ː

These also are invariable and derive historically from the form that was originally used with masculine nouns:

Unlike taha , the numeral taltasːar is pronounced without velarization. Conversely, tmanesːar is pronounced velarized whereas tmanya is not velarized. Some of the Jewish dialects on the eastern periphery of NENA area have the pharyngal consonant /ˁ/ in the form of the numeral '18', e.g. J. Sulemaniyya tˁmaˁni'sar, which may have been a secondary development conditioned  by the emphatic articulation of the word.

Note the velarization of tahi and tmoni. In some Jewish dialects on the eastern periphery of the NENA area the numeral '80' contains the pharyngeal consonant /
ˁ/, which has developed secondarily due to the emphatic environment. e.g. J. Sulemaniyya



100. əmma, 200. 'tre-mme, 300. taˈha-mme, 400. ar'ba-mme, 500. xam'ʃa-mme,

600. əʃ'ta-mme, 700. u'ʃwa, 800. tman'ya-mme, 900. ə't͡ʃːa-mme

    The stress is normally placed on the unit numeral rather that on the 'hundred'.


   1,000. alpa, 2,000. tre ʔalpe, tr-ʔalpe, 3,000. taha alpe, tah-alpe, 4,000. arba alpe, arb-alpe, 5,000. xamʃa alpe, xamʃ-alpe

   Unlike hundreds, the stress in these forms is generally placed in its canonical position at the end of the word, in both the contracted and unconstracted forms ( tah-al'pe, ta'ha-al'pe). The word alpa has plural inflection in multiples.

Combination of numerals

The numerals are combined in descending order, each linked by the conjunction w,
e.g. ə
sri-w xa '21', əsri-w tre '22', əmma xamʃi-w arba 154, taha alpe xamʃa mme əsri-w tre 3,522'.

Lishan Didan is called 'Jewish Azerbaijani Neo-Aramaic' by most scholars. Its speakers lived in Northern Iran in the townships of Northern Iranian Azerbaijan (specifically Urmia, official name Rizaiye and Salamas, official name Shahpur). Lishan Didan, translated as 'our language' is often confused with a similar language called Lishanid Noshan (which is also referred to as Lishan Didan). The term targum is often used to describe the two different languages called Lishan Didan, as it is a traditional and common term for the Jewish Neo-Aramaic dialects. Lishan Didan is an endagred languages and there was about Lishan Didan 4,500 speakers in 2001.


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