Language name and locationː Lenca, Honduras, El Salvador [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区伦卡语, 洪都拉斯西南部和萨尔瓦多东部地区


1. eta


3. lágua

4. eslea

5. say

6. guilli

7. guisca

8. tefca

9. calapa

10. isis


Linguist providing data and dateː Mr. Mark Rosenfelder, The Author of the website "Numbers from 1 to 10 in over 5000 languages", Chicago, USA, October 7 2023.

提供资的语言: Mr. Mark Rosenfelder, 2023 年 10 月 7 日.


Other comments: The Lenca, also known as Lepa Wiran, meaning “Jaguar People” or “People of The Jaguar” are a recently extinct (2007) Indigenous people from present day southwest Honduras and eastern El Salvador in Central America. They speak various dialects of the Lenca language such as Chilanga, Putun (Potón), and Kotik. Although the Lenca speak different dialects, they’ve always understood and coexisted with each other. In Honduras, the Lenca are the largest tribal group, with an estimated population of more than 450,000.

There are two attested Lencan languages, both extinct (Campbell 1997:167).
Map of El Salvador's Indigenous Peoples at the time of the Spanish conquest: 1. Pipil people, 2. Lenca people, 3. Kakawira o Cacaopera, 4. Xinca, 5. Maya Ch'orti' people, 6. Maya Poqomam people, 7. Mangue o Chorotega.
Salvadoran Lencan was spoken in Chilanga and Potó (thus the alternative language name Potón). Lencans had arrived in El Salvador about 2,000 years B.P. and founded the site of Quelepa. One speaker remains.
Honduran Lencan was spoken with minor dialect differences in Intibucá, Opatoro, Guajiquiro, Similatón (modern Cabañas), and Santa Elena. Some phrases survive; it is not known if the entire language still exists.
The languages are not closely related; Swadesh (1967) estimated 3,000 years since separation. Arguedas Cortés (1987) reconstructs Proto-Lencan with 12 consonants (including ejectives) and 5 vowels.
External relationships
The external relationships of the Lencan languages are disputed. Inclusion within Macro-Chibchan has often been proposed; Campbell (1987) reported that he found no solid evidence for such a connection, but Constenla-Umaña (2005) proposed regular correspondence between Lencan, Misumalpan, and Chibchan.

Campbell (2012) acknowledges that these claims of connection between Lencan, Misumalpan, and Chibchan have not yet been proved systematically, but he notes that Constenla-Umaña (2005) "presented evidence to support a relationship with two neighboring families [of languages]: Misumalpan and Lencan, which constitute the Lenmichí Micro-Phylum. According to [Constenla-Umaña's study (2005)], the Lenmichi Micro-Phylum first split into Proto-Chibchan and Proto-Misulencan, the common intermediate ancestor of the Lencan and the Misumalpan languages. This would have happened around 9,726 years before the present or 7,720 B.C. (the average of the time depths between the Chibchan languages and the Misulencan languages)...The respective subancestors of the Lencan and the Misumalpan languages would have separated around 7,705 before the present (5,069 B.C.), and Paya and the other intermediate ancestors of all the other Chibchan languages would have separated around 6,682 (4,676 B.C.)."
Another proposal by Lehmann (1920:727) links Lencan with the Xincan language family, though Campbell (1997:167) rejects most of Lehmann's twelve lexical comparisons as invalid. An automated computational analysis (ASJP 4) by Müller et al. (2013) also found lexical similarities between Lencan and Xincan. However, since the analysis was automatically generated, the grouping could be either due to mutual lexical borrowing or genetic inheritance.

Lenca has only recorded traditional numerals from 1 to 10 years ago, not sure if they were used a traditional decimal or vigesimal system before, New data for numbers after ten is required.