Language name and location: Dumi Rai, Sagarmatha zone, Nepal [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区杜米语, 尼泊尔东部戈斯省萨加玛塔专区


1. tuk

21.  sʌktu

2. sʌk

22.  sʌksʌk

3. rek

23.  sʌkrek

4. tum

24.  sʌktum

5. ŋʌ

25.  sʌkŋʌ

6. mu

26.  sʌkmu

7. sum

27.  sʌksum

8. um

28.  sʌkum

9. nu

29.  sʌknu

10. tuksu

30.  reksu

11. tuktuk

40.  tumsu

12. tuksʌk

50.  ŋʌsu

13. tukrek

60.  musu

14. tuktum

70.  sumsu

15. tukŋʌ

80.  umsu

16. tukmu

90.  nusu

17. tuksum

100. tuksusu

18. tukum 

200. sʌksusu

19. tuknu

1000. tuksususu

20. sʌksu

2000. sʌksususu


Linguist providing data and dateː Miss Tejmaya Dumi Rai, M.A. in linguistics, Tribhuvan University, Kiritipur, Nepal, May 19, 2020, June 4, 2020.

供资料的语言学家: Miss Tejmaya Dumi Rai, 2020 年 5 月 19 日, 2020 年 6 月 4 日.


Other comments: Dumi has a traditional decimal systems. Note: This numerals based on Baksila area.  Dumi language is one of the Rai Kiranti languages of Himalayish subgroup of the Tibeto-Burman language family spoken in Nepal. It is one of the preliterate and endangered languages. This language is especially spoken in Khotang district in eastern Nepal. Dumi speaking area is limited to different villages between Rawakhola and Tapkhola Rivers; namely, Baksila, Sapteswhor, Kharmi, Jalapa and Makpa. According to new federal structure Jalpa and Karmi are located under Diktel Majhuwagadhi Municipality, Baksila and Sapteshwor fall under Kepilasgadhi Rural Municipality and Makpa falls under Aiselukharka Rural Municipality at present. They are now scattering different parts of Nepal and abroad.  According to the census report of CBS (2011), the total number of Dumi people is 7,638. However, the preliminary survey 2013 held by LinSuN (Linguistic Survey of Nepal) shows that there are roughly 2500 speakers out of 15000 Dumi people i.e (16.7% of the total Dumi population).

Dumi language has 30 consonants and 7 vowels phonemes. All vowels are with length contrast.

1. Consonants phonemes        

     k      kʰ     g    gʰ   ŋ

     ʦ      ʦʰ    ʣ   ʣʰ

     ṭ       ṭh     ḍ    ḍh

     t       tʰ     d    dʰ   n

     p      pʰ    b    bʰ   m

     j       r      l     w

     s       h     ʔ                     


2. Vowels phonemes

    ʌ, a, e, o, u, ɨ, i

Language name and location: Dumi Rai, Sagarmatha zone, Nepal [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区杜米语, 尼泊尔东部戈斯省萨加玛塔专区


1. tuk

21.  sʌktu

2. sʌk

22.  sʌksʌ

3. suk

23.  sʌksu

4. buk

24.  sʌkbu

5. nek

25.  sʌkne

6. rek

26.  sʌkre 

7. sek

27.  sʌkse

8. uk

28.  sʌkku

9. nuk

29.  sʌknu

10. tuksi  **

30.  suksi

11. tuktu

40.  buksi

12. tuksʌ

50.  neksi

13. tuksu 

60.  reksi

14. tukbu

70.  seksi

15. tukne

80.  uksi

16. tukre 

90.  nuksi

17. tukse

100. tusiksi / tuk sim

18. tukku 

200. sʌsiksi / sʌk sim

19. tuknu

1000. tuk him

20. sʌksi

2000. sʌk him


Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Lal-Shyãkarelu Rapacha & Mr. Netra Mani Dumi, Jawaharlal Nehru University, India, May 28, 2006. Mr. Netra Mani Dumi, Ph. D. scholar, Tribhuvan University, Nepal, February 18, 2014.

供资料的语言学家: Dr. Lal-Shyãkarelu Rapacha & Mr. Netra Mani Dumi, 2006 年 5 月 28 日. Mr. Netra Mani Dumi, 2014 年 2 月 18 日.


Other comments: Dumi has a traditional decimal systems. However, like most of Kiranti languages, the traditional numerals of Tibeto-Burman origins have been replaced by that of Nepali or other predominant languages for many years ago, they only kept the traditional numerals from one to three or even one or completely used Nepali numerals with phonological adaptations, so that the numeral system can hardly be found up to ten and so as in Dumi. So far as the Dumi community concerned, me as the general secretary of our organization 'Dumi Kirat Rai Fonsikim (i.e. Dumi Organization), we have collected the numeral system from one to ten and then develop or imitated the system followed by others. Not only that, we have published this system for the response from the community. At the mean time, me as the Ph. D. scholar (from Tribhuvan University), it is also my concern to make it acceptable and authentic as well. In Dumi, the speaker can hardly use up to ten but for the further information, they follow from the publish numeral system.


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