Language name and location: Deori, Assam state, India [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区迪奥里 (丘蒂亚语 Chutiya), 印度东北部阿萨姆邦及附近地区


1. tʃɑ /zɑ

21.  kuwɑtʃɑ muzɑ

2. kuni / kini / huni / hini

22.  kuwɑtʃɑ muhuni

3. ŋda

23.  kuwɑtʃɑ muŋda

4. tʃì

24.  kuwɑtʃɑ mudtʃì

5. muwɑ

25.  kuwɑtʃɑ mumuwɑ

6. tʃu

26.  kuwɑtʃɑ mutʃu

7. ʃìŋ

27.  kuwɑtʃɑ muʃìŋ

8. tʃe

28.  kuwɑtʃɑ mutʃe

9. duɡu

29.  kuwɑtʃɑ muduɡu

10. duɡa

30.  kuwɑ-(ŋ)tʃɑ  [(20 x 1)+10]

11. muduɡa muzɑ

40.  kuwɑ-kini  (20 x 2)

12. muduɡa muhuni

50.  kuwɑ-muwɑ

13. muduɡa muŋda

60.  kuwɑ-ŋda (20 x 3)

14. muduɡa mudtʃì  

70.  kuwɑ-ʃì(ŋ)

15. muduɡa mumuwɑ

80.  kuwɑ-tʃì (20 x 4)

16. muduɡa mutʃu

90.  kuwɑ-(du)ɡu 

17. muduɡa muʃìŋ

100. kuwɑ- muwa (20 x 5)

18. muduɡa mutʃe

200. kuwɑmuwɑ kuwɑmuhini ( 20 x 2 ) 

19. muduɡa muduɡu

1,000. kuwɑmuwɑ muduɡa

20. kuwɑ-tʃɑ (20 x 1)

10,000. kuwɑmuwɑ kuwɑmuwɑ 


Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Prarthana Acharyya, Linguistics Research Scholar at the Indian Institute of Technology, Guahati, India, July 23, 2018.

Data taken from " Numerals in Bugun, Deuri and Nocte" by Madhumita Barbora,

Prarthana Acharyya and Trisja Wango, North East Indian Linguistics 7 (NEIL 7),

Asia-Pacific Linguistics, Colleagues of Asia and the Pacific, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, 2015.

供资料的语言学家: Dr. Prarthana Acharyya, 2018 年 7 月 23 日.


Other comments: Deuri or Deori or Chutiya is spoken by approximately 32,000 speakers in Assam state and Arunachal Pradesh state, India. Deuri or Deori has a vigesimal numeral system. Deuri has prefixes to form the core numeral and in Deuri the prefix mu- is obligatory and the base numerals take the mu- prefix to form the core numerals in the above table. The cardinal numeral tʃa and za ’one’ in Deuri are variants, native speakers alternately use both the forms.

Deuri has a prefix kuwa- which helps in constructing higher digits twenty onwards in the language.

In Deuri numbers 11 to 19 is built by addition of the basic numerals 1 to 9 to 10. Unlike Bugun, Deuri does not take a conjunctive marker. The prefix mu- affixes to the numbers built by this process. For instance muduga ‘ten’ combines with muza ‘one’ to build the cardinal ‘eleven’.

Deuri numerals above 19 take the prefix kowa-. We have the cardinals 20 to 29. The cardinals from 21t o 29 are instance of addition; where the basic cardinals 1 to 9 add up kuwɑ-tʃɑ ‘twenty’. This basic numeral is derived by multiplication kowa x tʃa ‘20 x 1’. The cardinal ‘twenty’ derived by this process is combined with the basic numerals ‘one’ to ‘nine’ to build the higher digits. In Deuri we have the instance of the base numeral n multiplying x and then y is added to build the higher digit. It is to be noted that to form ‘twenty’ the language uses one of the variants for ‘one’ tʃa. And to form the next higher digit the other variant muza ‘one’ is used. Thus ‘twenty one’ in Deuri is formed by the addition of kowatʃa ‘twenty’ to muza ‘one’; 

In Deuri the peripheral numerals: three, five, seven and nine suffixes to kuwa- to build the odd multiple numerals. In the derivation of the odd multiples a vowel or a consonant or syllable is dropped from the base numerals. Unlike Dzongkha multiple formation, Deuri odd multiples a derived by division. kuwa- multiplies with the base numeral muwa ‘five’ to give kuwamuwa ‘hundred’. In Table 14, with the dropping of the vowel we have kuwamu ‘fifty’. The same is true for the multiple thirty, kuwaŋda is sixty and kuwada with the drop of the velar nasal /ŋ / becomes ‘thirty’.

The phoneme or syllable within parenthesis is obligatorily dropped to build the odd multiples. The odd numerals (30, 50, 70 and 90) are a combination of 20 + the (un-prefixed) base numeral, and that the ‘base numeral’ is disyllabic and one syllable is dropped – the first syllable in some case and the last syllable in others. Why this happens we don’t know and this needs further investigation.

Note that Tone variations are hardly noticed in Bugun, Deuri and Nocte due to language contact. As most speakers use Hindi, Assamese or Nepali in their everyday life, they have lost tone in their native languages. Also due to lack of active use of native language they can no longer distinguish tone variation nor can they use them.

Note that we observe that Bugun numerals have three tones high, mid and low. It must be noted that tone in Bugun is disappearing mainly due to the impact of languages like Hindi, Nepali, Assamese and others.

Deuri cardinals do not show tone. Jacquesson (2005) remarks “tonal opposition is dying in Deuri, it certainly was prosperous although it is difficult to locate chronologically”.

Language name and location: Deori, Assam state, India [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区迪奥里 (丘蒂亚语 Chutiya), 印度东北部阿萨姆邦及附近地区


1. muɟa

21.  ni-ɡaŋ a

2. muxini

22.  ni-ɡaŋ ni

3. da

23.  ni-ɡaŋ da

4. cʰi

24.  ni-ɡaŋ cʰi

5. wa

25.  ni-ɡaŋ wa

6. cʰu

26.  ni-ɡaŋ cʰu

7. si

27.  ni-ɡaŋ si

8. se

28.  ni-ɡaŋ se

9. ɡu

29.  ni-ɡaŋ ɡu

10. ɡaŋ

30.  da-ɡaŋ

11. ɡaŋ-a

40.  cʰi-ɡaŋ

12. ɡaŋ-ni

50.  wa-ɡaŋ

13. ɡaŋ-da

60.  cʰu-ɡaŋ

14. ɡaŋ-cʰi

70.  si-ɡaŋ

15. ɡaŋ-wa

80.  se-ɡaŋ

16. ɡaŋ-cʰu

90.  ɡu-ɡaŋ

17. ɡaŋ-si

100. ra /rasa or kuwã-muwa

18. ɡaŋ-se

200. ni ra or ni kuwã-muwa 

19. ɡaŋ-ɡu

1000. sai or ɡaŋ kuwã-muwa ( 20 x 100 )

20. ni-ɡaŋ

2000. ni sai or ni-ɡaŋ kuwã-muwa


Linguist providing data and dateː Prof. Awadesh Mishra. Department of Linguistics, ESL/ELE, English & Foreign Languages University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India. November 13, 2010.

供资料的语言学家: Prof. Awadesh Mishra, 2010 年 11 月 13 日.


Other comments: Deori has a decimal numeral system different from that of other members of Bodo-Garo languages. The French linguist, Dr. François Jacquesson has reported tonal loss in Deori.


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