Language name and location: Chhintang, Kosi province, Nepal [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区钦唐语, 尼泊尔东部戈斯省


1. thitta ['ʈʰiʈːa]

2. hicce ['ɦit̥ːs̥e] / hicci before measures

3. sumce [ˈsumt̥s̥e], sumci before measures


Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Robert Schikowski, Department of General Linguistics, University of Zurich, Switzerland, February 13, 2013.

供资料的语言学家: Dr. Robert Schikowski, 2013 年 2 月 13 日.


Other comments: Chhintang only retained three traditional numerals, all numerals higher than three are expressed by Nepali loans. The Nepali numbers are different from standard Nepali for two reasons. First, they have been borrowed from Eastern Nepali. For instance, Eastern Nepali has [t̥s̥ʰʌu] for 'six' rather than [t̥s̥ʰʌː], so Chhintang and Chɨlɨng have this form, too. Second, some sounds may be adapted to the native phonological system. For instance, [d̪ʌs] 'ten' may be pronounced [ɖɔs] by older speakers. However, both kinds of differences are not deeply embedded into the languages, so younger speakers will use forms that perfectly match Eastern Nepali or even Standard Nepali in pronunciation without older people telling them that that sounds wrong. There are no mixed numerals from 4 to 100. The reason for this probably is that Nepali higher numerals are highly fusional, so there is no way to tear apart their components - cf. e.g. [t̪in] 'three' and [bis] 'twenty' to [tɛis] 'twenty-three'. Above 100, mixing is possible when counting hundreds (200, 300) and thousands (2000, 3000) in Chhintang, so instead of full Nepali [dui s?i] 'two hundred' one can say ['ɦit̥ːs̥i sʌi], using the Chhintang word for 'two' in its form before measures. This possibility is especially made use of when counting money ('two hundred rupee notes' etc.). So far I do not know whether this kind of mixing is also possible in Chɨlɨng. 

Language name and location: Chhintang, Kosi province, Nepal [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区钦唐语, 尼泊尔东部戈斯省


1. thitta

21.  ekkais

2. hicce / hicci

22.  bais

3. sumce

23.  teis

4. car

24.  caubis

5. pac

25.  paccis

6. cha / chau

26.  chabbis

7. sat

27.  satais

8. ath

28.  aththais

9. nau

29.  unantīs

10. das

30.  tis

11. eghar

40.  calīs

12. bara

50.  pacas 

13. tera

60.  sathi

14. caudha

70.  sattari

15. pandhra

80.  asi

16. sora

90.  nabbe

17. satra

100. sau / sae / thitta sau / thitta sae

18. athara

200. dui sau (sae) / hicce sau (sae)

19. unnais

1000. hajar / thitta hajar

20. bīs

2000. dui hajar / hicce hajar


Linguist providing data and dateː Mr. Goma Banjade, Tribhivan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, February 12, 2006.

供资料的语言学家: Mr. Goma Banjade, 2006 年 2 月 12 日.


Other comments: The Chhintang only has three traditional numerals now, after three they use Nepali numerals completely, the big numerals 100, 200, 1000 and 2000 can be expressed by mixing indigenous numerals with borrowing terms.

Note: While the orthography employed here is based on IPA, some deviations have to be noted: following the common orthographic traditions found in descriptions of Tibeto-Burman languages, the symbol <y>is used for the palatal approximant (IPA: [j]), <c> is used for the alveolar fricative (IPA: [t͡s]), and stands for its aspirated counterpart (IPA: [tsʰ]). Aspirated consonants are written <pʰ>, <tʰ>, <kʰ>, <wʰ>, <mʰ>, <nʰ>, <ŋʰ>. Geminated consonants are written with double letters, e.g. [mm] or [ss].


Back >> [ Home ] >> [ Sino-Tibetan ] >> [ Hmong-Mien / Miao-Yao ] >> [ Tai-Kadai ] >> [ Other Euro-Asians