Language name and location: Chhiling, Kosi province, Nepal [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区茨灵语 (楚龙语 Chhulung), 尼泊尔东部戈斯省


1. kolok [koloʔk̚]

2. sipok [sipoʔk̚]

3. sumbok [sumboʔk̚]


Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Robert Schikowski, Department of General Linguistics, University of Zurich, February 13, 2013.

供资料的语言学家: Dr. Robert Schikowski, 2013 年 2 月 13 日.


Other comments: Chhiling (Chɨlɨng) or Chhulung only has three traditional numerals, all numerals higher than three are expressed by Nepali loans. The Nepali numbers are different from standard Nepali for two reasons. First, they have been borrowed from Eastern Nepali. For instance, Eastern Nepali has [t̥s̥ʰʌu] for 'six' rather than [t̥s̥ʰʌː], so Chɨlɨng have this form, too. Second, some sounds may be adapted to the native phonological system. For instance, [d̪ʌs] 'ten' may be pronounced [ɖɔs] by older speakers. However, both kinds of differences are not deeply embedded into the languages, so younger speakers will use forms that perfectly match Eastern Nepali or even Standard Nepali in pronunciation without older people telling them that that sounds wrong. There are no mixed numerals from 4 to 100. The reason for this probably is that Nepali higher numerals are highly fusional, so there is no way to tear apart their components - cf. e.g. [t̪in] 'three' and [bis] 'twenty' to [tɛis] 'twenty-three'. Above 100, mixing is possible when counting hundreds (200, 300) and thousands (2000, 3000) in Chintang, so instead of full Nepali [dui s?i] 'two hundred' one can say ['ɦit̥ːs̥i sʌi], using the Chintang word for 'two' in its form before measures. This possibility is especially made use of when counting money ('two hundred rupee notes' etc.). So far I do not know whether this kind of mixing is also possible in Chɨlɨng. 


Back >> [ Home ] >> [ Sino-Tibetan ] >> [ Hmong-Mien / Miao-Yao ] >> [ Tai-Kadai ] >> [ Other Euro-Asians