Language name and locationː Yakama, Washington state, USA [Refer to Ethnologue]
言名称和分布地区雅卡马语 (雅基马语Yakima), 美国华盛顿州中南部雅基马县塔本尼许镇雅基马印第安人保留区


1. naxʃ  / laχs  *

21.   níiptit ku naχʃ

2. niipt / nápu *

22.   níiptit ku niipt

3. mɨ́taat / mɨ́taw *

23.   níiptit ku mɨ́taat 

4. píniipt / pínapu *

24.   níiptit ku píniipt

5. páχaat / páχnaw *

25.   níiptit ku páχaat

6. ptáχninʃ

26.   níiptit ku ptáχninʃ 

7. túskaas

27.   níiptit ku túskaas

8. paχatʼumáat

28.   níiptit ku paχatʼumáat

9. cʼmɨst

29.   níiptit ku cʼmɨst

10. pútɨmpt  / pútmu *

30.   mɨtáaptit

11. pútɨmpt ku naxʃ  (litː ten and one')

40.   píniiptit

12. pútɨmpt ku niipt

50.   paχáaptit

13. pútɨmpt ku mɨ́taat 

60.   ptaχninʃáaptit

14. pútɨmpt ku píniipt

70.   tuskaasáaptit

15. pútɨmpt ku páχaat

80.   paχatʼumáatáaptit

16. pútɨmpt ku ptáχninʃ 

90.   cʼmɨsáaptit

17. pútɨmpt ku túskaas

100.  (naχʃ) putáaptit

18. pútɨmpt ku paχatʼumáat

200.  niipt putáaptit  (litː two hundreds)

19. pútɨmpt ku cʼmɨst 

1000. pútɨmpt putáaptit (litː ten hundreds)

20. níiptit

2000. níiptit putáaptit (litː twenty hundreds )


Linguist providing data and dateː Ms, Virginia Beavert and Miss Joana Jansen, Northwest Indian Language Institute and Department of Linguistics, University of Oregon, Eugene, USA, March 22, 2009.
供资料的语言学家: Ms, Virginia Beavert and Miss Joana Jansen, 2009 年 12 月 18 日.


Other comments: Yakima or Yakima is a nearly extinct language spoken 25 elderly only out of 8,000 ethnic population on Yakima Reservation, Toppenish, south central Washington state. Yakima or Yakama has a decimal numeral system. The first set of numerals are used to count for non-human objects and the numerals with an asterisk mark are used to count human. The etymologies of four, seven, and eight are fairly clear. The numeral four (píniipt) is analyzed by Jacobs (1931) and Rigsby (1965) as two (niipt) plus a prefix pa- meaning one to another or a pair. Vowel assimilation changes pa- to pi-. So, píniipt is ‘two by two’ or ‘two twos’. túskaas, the number seven, is related to the instrumental prefix tux̱s- ‘with pointed end’, and refers to the seventh or index finger. Rigsby proposes that the suffix -aas could be a fossilized allomorph the first person clitic, giving ‘my pointer’(1965: 117). It also could be the nominalizer -as that is used with things done by or used by a person. In that case, seven means ‘a thing people use for pointing.’ (The current name for he pointer finger is tuskáwas.) pax̱at’umáat ‘eight’ is a combination of páx̱aat ‘five’ and mɨtáat ‘three’.         
   In 1994 the Yakama Nation began using the spelling Yakama. Virginia Beavert prefers the spelling Yakima because the elders working with Rigsby on the 1975 Yakima Language Practical Dictionary chose iiyaakíima as the best representation of the name of the language and tribe.

    See the attached for a phonetic chart. It is in the Yakima Practical alphabet. The differences between the Yakima Practical alphabet and the above are: (1) the Yakima practical alphabet uses an underscored k (ḵ) for uvular stop q, and an underscored x(x̱) for uvular fricative χ; (2) digraphs are used in the Yakima alphabet but not the alphabet: sh - š - ʃ, ch - č, ts – c, tɬ - ƛ, kw – kw , x̱w - χʷ

Yakima phonology (using the Yakima practical alphabet ). Consonant chart adapted from

Rigsby and Rude 1996. 


Short vowelsː i, u, a, ɨ, Long vowelsː ii, uu, aa, Acute marks indicated stress syllables.

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