Language name and location: Ulwa, Papua New Guinea [Refer to Ethnologue]
言名称和分布地区乌尔瓦 (姚尔语 Yaul), 巴布亚新几内亚东锡皮克省


1. kwe ~ kwa

21.  aŋɡai̯ wataŋɡɨnila kwe mowon ndɨwatlɨp

2. nini

22.  aŋɡai̯ wataŋɡɨnila minwon ndɨwatlɨp

3. lele

23.  aŋɡai̯ wataŋɡɨnila lele ndɨwon ndɨwatlɨp

4. wataŋɡɨnila

24.  aŋɡai̯ wataŋɡɨnilakwe ndɨwon ndɨwatlɨp

5. aŋɡai̯ (kwe)

25.  aŋɡai̯ aŋɡai ~ nali nini aŋɡai̯

6. aŋɡai̯ kwe kwe mowon ndɨwatlɨp  (5+1)

26.  aŋɡai̯ aŋɡai kwe mowon ndɨwatlɨp

7. aŋɡai̯ kwe nini minwon ndɨwatlɨp (5+2)

27.  aŋɡai̯ aŋɡai nini minwon ndɨwatlɨp

8. aŋɡai̯ kwe lele ndɨwon ndɨwatlɨp (5+3)

28.  aŋɡai̯ aŋɡai lele ndɨwon ndɨwatlɨp

9.  aŋɡai̯ kwe wataŋɡɨnila ndɨwon

     ndɨwatlɨp (5+4)

29.  aŋɡai̯ aŋɡai wataŋɡɨnila ndɨwon


10. aŋɡai̯ nini ~ nali (kwe)

30.  nali lele

11. aŋɡai̯ nini mowon ndɨwatlɨp

    ~ nali kwe kwe

40.  nali wataⁿɡinila 

12. aŋɡai̯ nini minwon ndɨwatlɨp  

    ~ nali kwe nini

50.  nali aŋɡai̯ ~ ankam unduwan

13. aŋɡai̯ nini lele ndɨwon ndɨwatlɨp  

   ~ nali kwe ndɨwon

60.  ankam unduwan nali (kwe)

14. aŋɡai̯ nini wataŋɡɨnila ndɨwon

     ndɨwatlɨp ~ nali kwe wataŋɡɨnila

70.  ankam unduwan nali nini

15. aŋɡai̯ lele

80.  ankam unduwan nali lele

16. aŋɡai̯ lele kowan ndɨwatlɨp

90.  ankam unduwan nali wataŋɡɨnila

17. aŋɡai̯ lele nini minwon ndɨwatlɨp  

100. uta (kwe)

18. aŋɡai̯ lele lele ndɨwon ndɨwatlɨp

200. uta nini, 300. uta lele

19. aŋɡai̯ lele wataŋɡɨnila ndɨwon



20. aŋɡai̯ wataŋɡɨnila ~ nali nini

       ~  lamndu unduwan



Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Russell Barlow, Department of Linguistics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii, USA, September 18, 2015, November 16, 2015, February 12, 2016, April 15, 2018.
供资料的语言 学家: Dr. Russell Barlow, 2015 年 9 月 18 日, 2015 年 11 月 15 日,
2016 年 2 月12 日, 2018 年 4 月 15 日


Other comments: Ulwa or Yaul makes use of a quinary numeral system.
The word for ‘five’ (aŋɡai̯) is transparently derived from aŋɡa ‘piece, side’ plus i ‘hand, arm’ (optionally, the word kwe ‘one’ may be added to this, i.e., aŋɡai̯ kwe). This reflects the system of hand-counting that underlies the quinary numerical system—that is, people start to count objects using the fingers of one hand. When all fingers have been extended (that is, when the number ‘five’ has been reached), they have created a single outstretched palm (that is, one ‘side’ of ‘hand’).
    The numbers six through nine contain verbal elements, which, when taken literally, express that ‘numbers’ (probably in origin palm fronds or other counters) have been ‘cut’ (won) and ‘put atop’ (wat-lɨ-p) the number five (mo= is a 3sg object marker, min= is a 3du object marker, and ndɨ= is a 3pl object marker).
   The number ten is of the form ‘five (times) two’. An alternate form, nali ‘ten’, reflects the traditional system for counting larger numbers in Ulwa, as this word also refers to the spines of sago fronds, which were used to mark units of ten when counting larger sums. The number twenty can be expressed either as ‘five (times) four’ or ‘ten (times) two’. It can also be denoted by the phrase lamndu unduwan ‘pig(’s) head’, a term reflecting modern Papua New Guinean currency, as the twenty-kina note has the picture of a pig’s head. (Higher-number counting was probably not a common practice among Ulwa speakers before the introduction of a cash economy.) Similarly, the number fifty can be expressed either as ‘ten (times) five’ or as ankam unduwan ‘person(’s) head’, this phrase likewise reflecting the fact that the fifty-kina note contains the image of a man’s head (that of Prime Minister Michael Somare). Finally, the number one hundred is expressed as uta (kwe) ‘(one) bird’, similarly derived from the fact that the hundred-kina note contains the image of a bird (a bird-of-paradise, the nation’s symbol).

    Ulwa, identified as “Yaul” in Ethnologue (21st ed.), is a moribund language, spoken in Dimiri, Manu, Maruat, and Yaul villages, Angoram District, East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea.

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