Language name and location: Southern Haida, Canada [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区南部海达语, 加拿大卑诗省西海岸海达瓜依群岛斯基德盖特村


1. sɢwaansəŋ

21.  tlaaʔalaay sdiŋ ʔwaa ɡi sɢwaansəŋ

2. sdiŋ

22.  tlaaʔalaay sdiŋ ʔwaa ɡi sdiŋ

3. ɬɢunʔuɬ

23.  tlaaʔalaay sdiŋ ʔwaa ɡi ɬɢunʔuɬ

4. sdansəŋ

24.  tlaaʔalaay sdiŋ ʔwaa ɡi sdansəŋ

5. tleeɬə * 

25.  tlaaʔalaay sdiŋ ʔwaa ɡi tleeɬə

6. tɬəɢunʔuɬ

26.  tlaaʔalaay sdiŋ ʔwaa ɡi tɬəɢunʔuɬ

7. d͡ʒiɡuɢa

27.  tlaaʔalaay sdiŋ ʔwaa ɡi d͡ʒiɡuɢa

8. sdaansəŋχa

28.  tlaaʔalaay sdiŋ ʔwaa ɡi sdaansəŋχa

9. tlaaʔaɬ ʔwaa sda sɢwaansəŋ ɡəw *

29.  tlaaʔalaay ɬɢunʔuɬ ʔwaa sda sɢwaansəŋ ɡəw

10. tlaaʔaɬ

30.  tlaaʔalaay ɬɢunʔuɬ

11. tlaaʔaɬ ʔwaa ɡi sɢwaansəŋ

40.  tlaaʔalaay sdansəŋ

12. tlaaʔaɬ ʔwaa ɡi sdiŋ

50.  tlaaʔalaay tleeɬə

13. tlaaʔaɬ ʔwaa ɡi ɬɢunʔuɬ

60.  tlaaʔalaay tɬəɢunʔuɬ

14. tlaaʔaɬ ʔwaa ɡi sdansəŋ

70.  tlaaʔalaay d͡ʒiɡuɢa

15. tlaaʔaɬ ʔwaa ɡi tleeɬə

80.  tlaaʔalaay sdaansəŋχa

16. tlaaʔaɬ ʔwaa ɡi tɬəɢunʔuɬ

90.  tlaaʔalaay tlaaʔaɬ ʔwaa sda tlaaʔaɬ ɡəw *

17. tlaaʔaɬ ʔwaa ɡi d͡ʒiɡuɢa

100. tlaaʔalaay tlaaʔaɬ

18. tlaaʔaɬ ʔwaa ɡi sdaansəŋχa

200. tlaaʔalaay tlaaʔalaay sdiŋ

19.tlaaʔalaay sdiŋ ʔwaa sda sɢwaansəŋ ɡəw


20. tlaaʔalaay sdiŋ ( < ''one person'' )



Linguist providing data and dateː Assistant Prof. Hirofumi Hori, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan. April 3, 2011.

提供资的语言: 博文准教授 (日本静冈大学人文和社会科学部言语文化学系), 2011 年 4 月 3 日.


Other comments: Southern Haida or Xaaydaa Kil is a nearly extinct language spoken by 7 elderly speakers only and 6 semi-speakers out of 500 ethnic population in British Columbia province: Haida Gwaii islands, Skidegate, Canada. Southern Haida has a decimal system with special structures for numbers 9, 19, 29 and 90. The data if from Skidegate dialect of Southern Haida.

1) Another form for ‘nine’ is tlaaʔaɬ ɡuy sɢwaansəŋ ɡəw. 'Nine' is rendered as 'from ten

    (tlaaʔaa ʔwaa sda) (or ‘toward ten’ [tlaaʔaa ɡuy]) one misses (ɡəw)'.  Thus 'nineteen'

    is 'twenty (=two ten) minus one' and 'ninety' is 'one hundred (=ten ten) minus ten'.

2) 'Eleven’ is formed by 'ten plus one', which applies to numerals up to ‘eighteen’.

3) Another form for ‘twenty’ is laaɡwaad, which is recorded by Swanton (1911) as a

    special numeral for counting blankets; thus, ‘forty’ is laaɡwaad sdiŋ when counting

    blankets. However, the form is obsolete.

    [Swanton, John R. 1911. Haida. In: Franz Boas (ed.), Handbook of American Indian

    languages, Part 1: 205–282. (Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 40).

    Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office]

Phonemic inventory:



Unaspirated: b, d, ɡ, G; ʔ. Aspirated: p, t, k, q. Ejective: (p'), t', k', q'


Unaspirated: dl; j []. Aspirated: tl; c []. Ejective: tl'; c'


   s, ɬ, x, χ, h


   m, n, ŋ


   Plain: w, y [j], l

   Glottalized: ('l [ʔl])

/’/ standing for the gradual beginning of a syllable as opposed to the clear beginning represented by /ʔ/.


 i, (e), a, ə, u


1) The IPA equivalents are represented in [ ].

2) The phonemes in parentheses are restricted to a few items.

3) Long vowels are represented by /ViVi/.

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