Language name and locationː Esselen, California state, USA [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区埃塞伦语, 美国西部加利福尼亚州中部地区


1. pek

2. xulax

3. xulep

4. xamaxus

5. pemaxala

6. pek-walanai    (1+5)

7. xulax-walanai  (2+5)

8. xulep-walanai  (3+5)

9. xamax-walanai (4+5)

10. tomoila


Linguist providing data and dateː Mr. Mark Rosenfelder, The Author of the website "Numbers from 1 to 10 in over 5000 languages", Chicago, USA, October 7 2023.

提供资的语言: Mr. Mark Rosenfelder, 2023 年 10 月 7 日.


Other comments: Esselen was the language of the Esselen (or self-designated Huelel) Nation, which aboriginally occupied the mountainous Central Coast of California, immediately south of Monterey (Shaul 1995). It was probably a language isolate, though has been included as a part of the hypothetical Hokan proposal.
The name Esselen was derived from a village name. The Esselen people referred to their own language as Huelel. The name was recorded by Felipe Arroyo de la Cuesta on May 18, 1832 at Soledad Mission from his informant Eusebio (native name Sutasis) (cf. villel 'tongue' as recorded by Dionisio Alcalá Galiano) (Shaul 1995).
Esselen may have been the first Californian language to become extinct. Although it was spoken by many of the early converts at Mission Carmel, its use rapidly declined during the Hispanic period. Very little information on the vocabulary and grammar of Esselen was preserved. About 350 words and phrases and a few complete sentences have been preserved in literature, including a short bilingual catechism (for a summary see Mithun 1999:411–413 and Golla 2011:114). By the beginning of the 20th century the only data on Esselen that investigators such as Kroeber and Harrington could collect were a few words remembered by speakers of other Indian languages in the area.
H. W. Henshaw thought that Esselen represented a monotypic linguistic family. Others, such as Shaul (2019), have assigned the language to the proposed Hokan family.
Shaul (2019) also notes that Esselen has had extensive contact with the Chumashan languages, with Esselen and Chumashan sharing many common lexical items.
has only recorded traditional numerals from 1 to 10 many years ago, not sure if they were used a traditional decimal or vigesimal system before, New data for numbers after ten is required. 

Back >> [ Home ] >> [ Eskimo-Aleut ] >> [ Eyak-Athabaskan] >>
Algic ] >> [ Salishan ] >> [ Siouan ] >> [ Iroquoian ]
[ Uto-Aztecan] >> [ Other North and Central American languages ]