Language name and locationː Yipma, Papua New Guinea [Refer to Ethnologue ]

言名称和分布地区: 伊普马语 (巴鲁雅Baruya), 巴布亚新几内亚东高地省


1. d--  (lit: ='one.fem'), da-i ( ='one.masc'),

    p-wa--i (' a/ some = 'one.masc'), pɨ-rɨ--' (a/ = 


2. da--waai (litː' this-fem.dual='two.fem'),da--raai (this--masc.dual-'two.masc'),

    p-wa--raai (a=agree--masc.dual='two.masc'), pɨ-rɨ-waai (a-agree--

3. da--waai da-- (litː 'two, one')

4. da--waai da--waai (litː 'two, two')

5. at--i-na ( ata--ɨlo-na  hand--mascC-about= 'hand/five')

6. at--i-na ɑta pw--ɨr-ɨ-daa'nyɨ da--

   (litː five, hand a gree-mascC-obj-from'five, from another hand, one')

7. at--i-na ata pw--ɨr-ɨ-daa'nyɨ da--waai

   (li five, from another hand two')

8. at--i-na ata pw--ɨr-ɨ-daa'nyɨ da--wai da--

   (li five, from another hand two, one')

9. at--i-na ata pw--ɨr-ɨ-daa'nyɨ da--da--waai da--waai

10. ɑt--ɨraai (litː ''two hands'); at--ɨraai-ya--ngo ('hand--mascC.dual-embed--fem.they=


11. sɨvɨl--ɨraai at--i pw--ɨr-ɨ-daa'nyɨ da--

     (litː 'foot--mascC.dual, from another hand one')

12. sɨvɨl--ɨraai at--i pw--ɨr-ɨ-daa'nyɨ da--waai

     (litː 'foot--mascC.dual, from another hand two')

13. sɨvɨl--ɨraai at--i pw--ɨr-ɨ-daa'nyɨ da--waai da--

14. sɨvɨl--ɨraai at--i pw--ɨr-ɨ-daa'nyɨ da--waai da--waai

15. sɨvɨl--ɨraai at--i (litː 'two feet and a hand')

16. sɨvɨl--ɨraai at--i ata pw--ɨr-ɨ-daa'nyɨ da--

     (litː' two feet, hand, from another hand one')

17. sɨvɨl--ɨraai at--i ata pw--ɨr-ɨ-daa'nyɨ da--waai

     (litː' two feet, hand, from another hand two')

18. sɨvɨl--ɨraai at--i ata pw--ɨr-ɨ-daa'nyɨ da--waai da--

19. sɨvɨl--ɨraai at--i ata pw--ɨr-ɨ-daa'nyɨ dɑ--waai da--waai

20. sɨvɨl--ɨraai at--ɨraai (litː ''two feet, two hands'), sɨvɨlat--ɨraai (foot--hand--two')


Linguist providing data and dateː Mr. & Mrs. Joy and Dick Lloyd, SIL International, Papua New Guinea. May 23, 2011.

供资料的语言 学家: Mr. & Mrs. Joy and Dick Lloyd, 2011 年 5 月 23 日.


Other comments: Yipma or Baruya is spoken by about 9,000 speakers in Marawaka district, Eastern Highlands province, Papua New Guinea. The Baruya tally-system exhibits some unusual feathers. First, in the strict sense, Baruya has no numerals at all, i.e. there are no words in the tally-system which denote only numbers. Second, Baruya displaces a complex gender systems of masculine and feminine nouns and noun phrases. In tallying objects which belong to the feminine group, one set of tally-words will be employed and this is somewhat different to the set used for tally objects belonging to masculine group. The tally-word for 1 is 'da-', translated as 'this she'. The tally word for 2 is da-waai where 'da' is 'thus' and 'waai' is 'they(2)', i.e. the dual form of the 3rd personal person plural personal pronoun. Tallying 3 and 4 involved combinations of these. The reminding data are hand and foot tally-directions.

   The Baruya use their fingers, hands, toes and feet but are only specific on the lower

numbers. e.g. one, two, two and one, two and two, one hand, one hand plus one, one hand plus two, two hands, two hands and a foot (more often two feet and a hand=15), one person, two people, a lot of people. There are no numeral roots as such. Demonstratives and articles and certain nouns are used in counting. These change according to gender and case. As counting is usually done on the fingers, by bringing the tops together, the demonstrative root da, 'this' is the most common root used. For the numbers 'one' and 'two' the article root' is most common. These stems have affixes which change according to person, number, gender and case. The only past instance where bigger numbers were counted was the number of war party. Salt bars are also counted, but this is only to a maximum of fifteen. Very rarely would anyone count from one to twenty. Seven is the largest individual number used in most circumstances. The present tendency is to use the English systems for anything higher than five.

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