Language name and location: Waffa, Papua New Guinea [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区瓦法语, 巴布亚新几内亚东高地省凯南图地区及莫内贝省


1. mmuaa-vai

2. taara-vaitana

3. taara-vooma (litː ''two plus one plus'')

4. taarama taarama (litː ''two plus two plus'')

5. yaaku sai-vai (litː ''a hand'') or eera ivo

6. karasa-idi mmuaa-vai (litː ''hand and the other hand one'')

7. karasa-idi taara-vaitana

8. karasa-idi taara-voo-ma

9. karasa-idi taarama taarama

10. yaaku-vaitana  (litː ''my hands'')

11. yuku-ki-di mmuaa-vai (litː ''foot half-it is'')

12. yuku-ki-di taara-vaitana

13. yuku-ki-di taara-voo-ma

14. yuku-ki-di taarama taarama

15. yuku sai vai (lit: ''foot-half-area'')

16. sai-nai-diri mmuaa-vai (lit: ''half-area-from one it-is' or one from the other foot'')

17. sai-nai-diri taara-vaitana

18. sai-nai-diri taara-voo-ma

19. sai-nai-diri taarama taarama

20. yuku yaaku taiku kioo (litː ''feet hands finished completely'')


Linguist providing data and dateː Ms. Vida Chenoweth, SIL International, Papua New

Guinea, June 9, 2011.

提供资的语言家: Ms. Vida Chenoweth, 2011 年 6 月 9 日.


Other comments: Waffa is spoken by approximately 2,000 speakers in Kainantu district, Eastern Highlands province and Kaiapit district, Waffa river headwaters, Morobe province, Papua New Guinea. The Waffa system is a digit-tally one with a (2, 5, 20) cyclic pattern. The basic numeral set is (1, 2) and the numerals 3 and 4 have, respectively, the constructions '2 plus 1' and '2 plus 2'). % is 'yaaku-sai-vai' means 'hand half-it-is', where 'hand' is 'yaaku', the other, 'eera ivo', means 'fifth finger'. The number word for 10, however, means 'hands two'). The numbers word (phrase) fro 6 is 'karasa-idi mmuaa-vai', i.e. (literally) 'new-from one-it-is' or one from the new hand'. The numbers 6 to 9 have the same construction. When the tally of the fingers is complete, tallying proceeds to the toes. The number words for 11 to 15 each contain a 'foot' morpheme 'yuku': that for 11 is 'yuku-ki-di mmua-vai', i.e. 'foot half-it is'. After 15 is reached, tally proceeds on the toes of the other foot and we have for 16: 'sai-nai-didri-mmua-vai', i.e. 'half-area-from one it-is' or one from the other foot'. When 20 is reached we have: 'yuku yaaku taika kioo', i.e. 'feet hands finished completely'.

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