Language name and locationː Siane, Papua New Guinea [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区: 西亚内语, 巴布亚新几内亚东高地省戈罗卡地区及钦布省


1. lawoko ~ lako ~ mako  

2. lele ~ loiti   

3. lelei lawokoi ~ lele ru lere ru ~ loitiɡi makoɡi  (litː 'two is and one is and')

4. lelei lelei ~ leuma ~ loitiɡi loitiɡi  (litː 'two is and two is and')

5. lelei lelei lawokoi or ade filiga leka ~ ade filinga or ande piriringa

    ~ loitiɡi loitiɡi makogi (litː 'my-hand one finished is') 

10. de filiga-filiga ~ a(n)de filinga-filinga ~ aga firinga firinga or oiso mako

 (litː 'my-hand both finished and my-foot-on one')


Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Glen A. Lean, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The Papua New Guinea University of Technology, Lae, Papua New Guinea, July 14, 1987.
供资料的语言学家: Dr. Glen A. Lean, 1987 年 7 月 14 日.


Other comments: Siane is spoken by approximately 30,000 speakers in Chimbu and Eastern Highlands provinces, Papua New Guinea. Siane has a tally system with two words for numbers and traditionally they can count up to 100 using hands and feet.

Siane has a (2,5) cyclic pattern although System B appears.


modified 2-cycle in that it has a distinct numeral 3 numeral 4 has a '2+2' construction. In Systems A and alternatives are given for the numeral 5. System A ha example, both 'lelei lelei lawokoi' or 'ade filiga the former having a '2+2+1' construction, the latter tallying-direction 'hand-our-part', 'hand-our-half 'hand-our one-side', where 'ade' means 'our hand'. Sy has either 'loitigi loitigi makogi', i.e '2+2+1', filiga hulotu' which similarly has a 'our hand one meaning, 'aga' being 'our hand'. System B has onl filinga' ('ande piringa'). The 'numeral' 10 for all is in fact a tallying-direction with the meaning 'ou half-half' or 'our hand side-side'. Several Sys informants also gave 'oiso mako' ('oso mako') where appears to have a 'ten' or 'group of ten' meaning. Τ then used (by two informants) to construct sub decades so that 20 is 'oiso loiti'. It is not known the introduction of a 10-cycle into the counting syst recent innovation or not.


CSQ informants provided data on the numeral 9 for both Systems B and C, however there was agreement among them. Counting 'seven', for example, done by combining the numerals 1 and 2, i.e '2+2+2+1" using the 'hand+2' tallying-direction.


Several CSQ existence of a hundred morpheme, 'owo' or 'ovo' sc informants also indicate for example, the System C informants gave 100 as 'owd 200 as 'owo loiti', and so on. It is possible, however, that the introduction of a 100-cycle (and the 10-cycle) into th counting system may be of relatively recent origin an occurring as a result of the influence of the English tok pisin counting systems (rather than the influence some AN language.

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