Language name and location: Pagu, Maluku province, Indonesia [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区帕古语, 印度尼西亚马鲁古省哈尔马黑拉岛北部


1. (du)'moi

21.  mona'loko de du'moi

2. moˈdidi

22.  mona'loko de moˈdidi

3. moˈaŋe

23.  mona'loko de moˈaŋe

4. ˈloata

24.  mona'loko de ˈloata

5. moˈtoa

25.  mona'loko de moˈtoa

6. buˈtaŋa

26.  mona'loko de buˈtaŋa

7. tumuˈdiiŋ

27.  mona'loko de tumuˈdiiŋ

8. tuˈaŋe

28.  mona'loko de tuˈaŋe

9. ˈsiwo

29.  mona'loko de ˈsiwo

10. moɡiˈoko

30.  mo'luaŋŋe

11. moɡiˈoko de du'moi

40.  mo'luata

12. moɡiˈoko de moˈdidi

50.  moˈlitoa

13. moɡiˈoko de moˈaŋe

60.  molibuˈtaŋa

14. moɡiˈoko de ˈloata

70.  molitumuˈdiiŋ

15. moɡiˈoko de moˈtoa

80.  molituˈaŋe

16. moɡiˈoko de buˈtaŋa

90.  moliˈsiwo

17. moɡiˈoko de tumuˈdiiŋ

100. ˈlatusu ˈmoi *

18. moɡiˈoko de tuˈaŋe

200. ˈlatusu moˈdidi 

19. moɡiˈoko de ˈsiwo

1000. ˈribu ˈmoi  *

20. mona'loko

2000. ˈribu moˈdidi


Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Dalan Perangin-Angin, Department of Linguistics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, April 1, 2016.

提供资的语言家: Dr. Dalan Perangin-Angin, 2016 年 4 月 1 日.


Other comments: Pagu is spoken by approximately 3,000 spakers in North Maluku province: Halmahera Utara regency on lower Kao river and west to interior foothills. Paguu has a decimal system similar to that of Tabaru. The numbers ''hundred'' and ''thousand'' are loanwords from Austronesian language.

    Pagu has a deciaml system with counting numbers from 1 up to 999,999. One million is not mentioned as Pagu number, probably as it refers back to money counting in the old period where millions are ‘unfamiliar’ number. Pagu people know millions just recently in the counting money case, namely those borrowed from the Indonesian/Malay juta ‘million’

    It has some the basic numbers: (i) single numbers (1 to 9), (ii) tens (10 to 99), (iii) hundreds (100 to 999), and (v) thousand (1000 to 999,999).

    These are the numbers and the system for their combinations.

(the stress is always on the penultimate syllable)

Single numbers:

0:         koiwa

1:         (du)moi 

2:         modidi

3:         moange

4:         loata

5:         motoa

6:         butanga

7:         tumudiing

8:         tuange

9:         siwo



10:                   mogioko

20:                   monaloko

30:                   moluange

40:                   moluata

50:                   molitoa

60:                   molibutanga

70:                   molitumudiing

80:                   molituange

90:                   molisiwo

The tens can be followed by single numbers connected with the conjunction de ‘and’, as shown in the following examples:

11:       mogioko de dumoi

12:       mogioko de modidi

55:       molitoa de motoa

93:       molisiwo de moange

99:       molisiwo de siwo



Hundreds are always preceded by ‘hundred’, followed by ‘ten’ and then a single number. The hundred is followed by a single number (not linked with de) that identify the amount of the ‘hundred’. It is then followed by ‘ten’ that is linked with de and followed by a single number that linked by de again.

101: latusu moi de dumoi

345: latusu moange de moluata de motoa

589: latusu motoa de molituange de siwo

834: latusu tuange de moluange de loata

999: latusu siwo de molisiwo de siwo



Thousands are always preceded by ‘thousand’ followed by ‘hundred’, ‘ten’ and then a single number. The ‘thousand’ is followed by some number (not linked with de) that identify the amount of the thousand. The thousand and the hundred is linked with de. The ‘hundred’ is followed by a single number and not linked with de too. The ‘ten’ is followed with a single number linked with the. See the following examples.

3,021: ribusu moange de monaloko de dumoi

65,605: ribusu de molibutanga de motoa de latusu butanga de motoa

999,999: ribusu de latusu siwo de molisiwo de siwo de latusu siwo de molisiwo de siwo


Note that in Pagu often there is a 'copy vowel' (when the last sound of a word is a consonant). Like in the numerals: loat 'four' is pronounced loata, mogiok 'ten' --> mogioko, monalok '20' --> monaloko, and moluat '40' --> moluata.

This copy vowel is however not counted as a syllable, thus the stress would be: 'loat(a) (is correct already), mo'giok(o), mo'nalok(o) and mo'luat(a).

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