Language name and locationː Marind, Papua province, Indonesia [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区沿岸马林德语, 印度尼西亚巴布亚省南部梅拉克县沿海地区


1. hjakod 

2. inah 

3. inhjakod (2+1) <inhjakod ‘three’ (< inah+hjakod)

4. inahinah (2+2) < inahinah ‘four’ (< inah+inah)

5. mbja-lay-saŋɡa (litː 'all-side-hand')

6. laɣ-saŋɡa-hjakod (litː 'side-hand+1')

7. laɣ-saŋɡa-inah (litː 'side-hand+2')

8. laɣ-saŋɡa-inhjakod (litː 'side-hand+3')

9. laɣ-saŋɡa-inahinah (litː 'side-hand+4')

10. saŋɡa-balen (litː 'hand-finish')

11. taɡu-hjakod  (litː 'foot+1') 

12. taɡu-inah (litː 'foot+2') 

13. taɡu-inhjakod (litː 'foot+3') 

14. taɡu-inahinah  (litː 'foot+4') 

15. mbja-laɣ-taɡu (litː 'all-side-foot')   

16. laɣ-taɡu-hjakod   (litː 'side-foot+1')    

17. laɣ-taɡu-inah  (litː 'side-foot+2') 

18. laɣ-taɡu-inhjakod (litː 'side-foot+3')

19. laɣ-taɡu-inahinah (litː 'side-foot+4')

20. taɡu-balen (litː 'foot-finish')


Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Bruno Olsson, Department of Linguistics, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore / The Australian National University, Centre of Excellence for Dynamics for Language, Canberra, Australia,. June 6, 2018.

提供资的语言家: Dr. Bruno Olsson2018 年 6 月 6 日.


Other comments: Marind is spoken by about 7,000 speakers in Merauke regency, south coast area of Papua province, Indonesia. The above data was taken from Western dialect of Coastal Marind, while the old data of Marind numerals taken from SIL survey in 2009 was from the east dialect around Merauke. In contemporary Marind, native numerals are only used up to 5 or 6. Speakers occasionally point out that Marind has words for counting all the way to 20. Most people can, with some effort, produce some or all of these numerals, but I have never heard them used (even by older speakers).

The Above table lists all numerals up to 20. The simplex numerals hjakod ‘1’ and inah ‘2’provide the etymological sources of the numerals inhjakod ‘three’ (< inah+hjakod)
and inahinah ‘four’ (< inah+inah). The higher numerals are formed by combinations of the lower numerals, the bodyparts saŋga ‘hand’ and tagu ‘foot’, and the words laɣ ‘(one) side, (the other) side’, mbya ‘all, total’ and balen ‘finish, run out’. For example,

‘5’ is mbja-laɣ-saɳga, which can be given the literal gloss ‘all [of the fingers from]

the hand [on one] side’, while ‘6’ is laɣ-saŋga-hjakod ‘hand [on one] side [plus] one’, and so on. ‘10’ is formed from ‘hand’ plus the verb stem ‘finish, run out’, i.e. ‘the hands, finished’. The counting then continues according to the same pattern, but with tagu ‘foot’ instead of ‘hand’, all the way to 20. Today it is clearly becoming obsolete, and some speakers, when showing their counting skills, hesitantly produced forms such as inah-inah-hjakod ‘2+2+1’ for ‘5’, and inah-inah-inah ‘2+2+2’ for ‘6’. Such arithmetic neologisms reflect the fact that reciting numbers in Marind is a rather unnatural exercise, and all speakers clearly prefer to use Malay for this purpose. Speakers often code-switch to Malay even for expressing lower numerals. 

Language name and locationː Marind, Papua province, Indonesia [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区沿岸马林德语, 印度尼西亚巴布亚省南部梅拉克县沿海地区


1. izʌ.kod

2. i'nʌ

3. i'nʌjzʌ'kod  (2+1)

4. i'nʌj'inʌ      (2+2)

5. 'ɽʌsʌŋɡʌ

6. 'ɽʌsʌŋɡʌzʌ'kod

7. 'ɽʌsʌŋɡʌi'nʌ

8. 'ɽʌsʌŋɡʌi'nʌjzʌkod
9. 'ɽʌsʌŋɡʌi'nʌhi'nʌ
10. mbʌsʌŋɡʌ


Linguist providing data and dateː
Sohn, Myo-Sook, Randy Lebold and Ron Kriens. 2009. "Report on the Merauke Subdistrict Survey, Papua, Indonesia." SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2009-018:



Other comments: Marind might have numerals up to ten. New data needed.

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