Language name and location: Gogodala, Papua New Guinea [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区戈戈达拉语, 巴布亚新几内亚西部省


1. mɛnɑɡi

2. sɑki

3. sɑɺikiɺiwɑ

4. sɑkisɑki

5. maɪ ɡʊɺɑ

6. jædɛɺɑ mɛnɑɡi     (''side''+1)

7. jædɛɺɑ sɑki          (''side''+2)

8. jædɛɺɑ sɑɺikiɺiwɑ (''side''+3)

9. jædɛɺɑ sɑkisɑki    (''side''+4)

10. maɪ tɛ ɡʊɺɑ


Linguist providing data and dateː Mr. Philip Townsend (Expatriate church) through Mr. Ray Stegeman. SIL International, Papua New Guinea. June 18, 2010.

供资料的语言 学家: Mr. Philip Townsend, 2010 年 6 月 18 日.


Other comments: Gogodala is spoken by about 26,000 speakers in villages in Fly River north bank, Aramia river, Western province, Papua New Guinea. Gogodala has a numeral system from one to ten.

1. There are some differences in pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar between

    north / south / east / west groups within the language.

2. This is significant for the numeral one –mɛnɑɡi most commonly used mɛnæɡi 

     standard form in south

3. This is occasionally noticed for the numeral two –sɑki most commonly used sɑkwi

     unusual form in south

4. Some speakers have a retroflex lateral tap, others do not. This has been a long

    standing contention for many years. I suggest that as English is becoming more

    common, the retroflex version is disappearing. sɑɺikiɺiwɑ  increasingly common

    sɑɭikiɭiwɑ  historic and regional form

5. Use of traditional numerals beyond three is decreasing. Numerals for 4 and 5 are

    still being used, but are being replaced by English terms. Numerals for 6-9 are

   virtually never used any more and have been replaced by English terms. The numeral

   for ten is only rarely used by older people.

6. maɪ ɡʊɺɑ This expression for the numeral 5 uses terms for ‘hand’ + ‘finished

   / completed’. Effectively this means ‘all the digits on one hand have been used

   in counting’.

7. jædɛɺɑ mɛnɑɡi  This expression for the numeral 6 uses terms for ‘side’ +

   ‘numeral 1’. Effectively this means ‘all the digits on the hand on one side of the

   body  plus the numeral one’.  This pattern is used for numerals 6-9.

8. maɪ tɛ ɡʊɺɑ This expression for the numeral 10 uses terms for ‘hand’ +

   ‘subject marker’ + ‘finished / completed’. Effectively this means ‘all the digits

   on both  hands have been used in counting’.

9. Occasionally for numeral 6, people will say maɪ ɡʊɺɑ  mɛnɑɡi (and a similar

   pattern for numerals 6-9). This seems to be a practice by people aged less than

   fifty years old.

10. Sometimes for the numeral ten people will say sɑki maɪ ɡʊɺɑ 

11. Rarely people might use sɑki maɪ ɡʊɺɑ as a base to begin numerals 11-14. 

     This is unusual.  e.g. sɑki maɪ ɡʊɺɑ mɛnɑɡi (for numeral 11).

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