Language name and location: Gadsup, Papua New Guinea [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区加祖普语, 巴布亚新几内亚东高地省凯南图地区及莫内贝省


1. ma̠nǎi

2. kanta̠nnî

3. kanda̠c ma̠nawá̠ci, kamoré

4. kanda̠c kanda̠cî, eríyéwá̠mi

5. man̠a yá̠cmá̠nni

6. a̠fa̠c ma̠nǎ ummá̠na̠ci  

7. a̠fa̠c karummá̠na̠ci 

8. a̠fa̠c kanda̠c ma̠nawá̠c ummá̠na̠ci

9. a̠fa̠c eríyéwá̠m ummá̠na̠ci 

10. tiyǎnkanni 

11. tiyǎnkarě ma̠nǎ kummá̠na̠ci

12. tiyǎnkarě ka̠n kummá̠na̠ci

13. tiyǎnkarě kanda̠c ma̠nawá̠ci kummá̠na̠ci

14. tiyǎnkarě eríyéwá̠m kummá̠na̠ci
15. tiyǎnkarě ma̠na íká̠n tocyyâmî
16. ma̠na íká̠n tocyâně a̠fa̠c ma̠nǎ kummá̠na̠ci
17. ma̠na íká̠n tocyâně a̠fa̠c ka̠n kummá̠na̠ci
18. ma̠na íká̠n tocyâně a̠fa̠c kanda̠c ma̠nawá̠c kummá̠na̠ci
19. ma̠na íká̠n tocyâně a̠fa̠c eríyéwá̠m kummá̠na̠ci 
20. ma̠na wá̠íntá̠ múyi


Linguist providing data and dateː Mr. Chester Frantz, SIL International, Papua New

Guinea, June 9, 2010.

提供资的语言家: Mr. Chester Frantz. 2010 年 6 月 9 日.


Other comments: Gadsup is spoken by approximately 20,000 speakers in Kainantu district, Eastern Highlands province and Markham district, Morobe province, Papua New Guinea.
1.  Basically Gadsup is a “20” point cycle system – partially like English 1 to 20. 
     Afterwards English becomes consistent saying 20, 30, 40 etc. Gadsup though, keeps
     doing a “20” point cycle. They say “one man whole” for 20. Gadsup then takes their
     original “1-9” sayings and say them after “one man.” They say “one man + ten”
     (for 30).  Gadsup then takes their original “11-19”  sayings and say them after “one
     man.” This is repeated for “two man whole” (for 40) and “two man + ten” (for
2. The term “man” (
wa̱inta̱) represents “20” for all the 20 digits (fingers and toes) of
    man. The term “first time get” (ma̱na yá̱cmá̱n) represents “5” for all the first  5
    finger digits starting the counting cycle. The term “my two hands”
    (tiyǎnkanni/tiyǎnkarê) represents “10” for all the 10 finger digits starting the
     counting cycle. The term “one foot total” (ma̱na íká̱n tocyâmi) represents “5” for
    all the five toe digits of the first foot counted. To get the opposite hand or foot
    while counting notice the term “away to other side” (a̱fa̱c).
3.  To ask a Gadsup person to show by actions what they are saying- he/she would
     say “one” and take one hand and bend and hold the little finger of the opposite
     hand. On saying 2, the second finger would also be held down, and so on until
     the thumb is clasped and the fist is shown for 5. The process is repeated by holding
     the toes one foot at a time for 11-20. The specific names of the fingers or toes are
     not used.

4. 21. is ma̠na wá̠íntá̠ ma̠nǎi, 30. ma̠na wá̠íntá̠ tiyǎnkannî

    40. kam wá̠íntá̠ múyi, 100. ma̠na yá̠cmá̠n wá̠íntá̠ múyi

Summary of Gadsup Phonological Data: Chester I Frantz, SIL, June 13, 2010

1. Phonemic alphabet as originally analyzed remains the same – 9 consonants and 6 vowels. 
   Two changes were made in the orthography  upon  the publication of the Gadsup NT 1981.
   The glottal symbolized by the apostrophy   ‘ , was changed to “c”, and the intervocallic “t” was changed to “s”. Since then, we are presently making two further changes to explicitly mark these two allophones along with the allophone “s”. They are the intervocalic “p”>“f”, and intervocalic “d” to “r”. Our present orthography consists of: 12 consonants  -  p/f   t/s   k  w   d/r   m  n  y  c
, 6 Vowels - a a̠ e i o u
   4 phonemic tonesː Upglide tone -   ̆, Downglide tone -   ̂, Low tone - unmarked

2. Consonant phonetic Inventory.







Stop / flap





 c (ʔ)


ɸ, β






p (ɸ)















a.  Stop d occurs word initially or following a glottal or nasal. When it occurs intervocalically, its allophone is written as the flap r. Bilabial affricate pΦ and alveolar affricate ts occur word initially or following a glottal or nasal. When they occur intervocalically, their respective allophones are written as f and s. Voiced bilabial fricative β is written as w. Only the consonants  m,  n, or c may occur word final. Any vowel may occur word final.

3. Vowel phonetic inventory.           













o, ʌ





 Note  that ʌ is manifested as a̠

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