Language name and locationː Enggano, Sumatra, Indonesia [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区恩加诺, 印度尼西亚苏门答腊岛南部隔海之恩加诺


1. kahaiʔ  ⁱ

21.  kahaiʔ kak he kahaiʔ

2. ʔaru

22.  kahaiʔ kak he ʔaru

3. ʔakər

23.  kahaiʔ kak he ʔakər

4. ʔaup

24.  kahaiʔ kak he ʔaup

5. ʔarib

25.  kahaiʔ kak he ʔarib

6. ʔakiʔakin

26.  kahaiʔ kak he ʔakiʔakin

7. ʔarib he ʔaru ⁱⁱ

27.  kahaiʔ kak he ʔarib he ʔaru

8. kĩpãʔĩõp or ʔãpãʔĩõp ⁱⁱⁱ

28.  kahaiʔ kak he ʔãpãʔĩõp

9. kaba kahaiʔ ⁱᵛ

29.  kahaiʔ kak he kĩpãʔĩõp kabai kahaiʔ

10. kĩpãʔãũ ᵛ

30.  kahaiʔ kak he kĩpãʔãũp

11. kĩpãʔãũp he kahaiʔ

40.  ʔaru kak ( 2 x 20 )

12. kĩpãʔãũp he ʔaru

50.  ʔaru kak he kĩpãʔãũp

13. kĩpãʔãũp he ʔakər

60.  ʔakər kak ( 3 x 20 )

14. kĩpãʔãũp he ʔaup

70.  ʔakər kak he kĩpãʔãũp

15. kĩpãʔãũp he ʔarib

80.  ʔaup kak  ( 4 x 20 )

16. kĩpãʔãũp he ʔakiʔakin

90.  ʔaup kak he kĩpãʔãũp

17. kĩpãʔãũp he ʔarib he ʔaru

100. ʔarib kak ( 5 x 20 ) or kahaiʔ ratuhᵛⁱ

18. kĩpãʔãũp he ʔãpãʔĩõp

200. ʔaru ratuh

19. kĩpãʔãũp he ʔãpãʔĩõp ʔabai kahaʔᵛⁱ

1000. kahaiʔ dibu

20. kahaiʔ kak ᵛⁱⁱⁱ

2000. ʔaru dibu


Linguist providing data and dateː Dr. Brendon Yoder. SIL International, June 9, 2010. February 19, 2011.

供资料的语言学家: Dr. Brendon Yoder, 2010 年 6 月 9 日, 2011年 2 月 19 日.


Other comments: Enggano has a numeral system very different from other Western Austronesian languages and now is regards as an 'Unclassified language' within the Austronesian Phylum but on 18th edition of 'Ethnologue' 2015, Enggano has been re-classified as 'Unclassified language', not conclusively established as an Austronesian  language.

   Enggano has not been fully studied for several decades. A few sociolinguistic notes. Enggano is now spoken by about 700 people, all of whom are also fluent in Indonesian. But Enggano is still the language of the home for most. The numeral system, however, is rarely used since people have switched almost entirely to the more straightforward Indonesian numeral system, even when speaking Enggano. My language informants (both men and women, ages 30-40) were able to remember the Enggano forms 1-10 with ease, and with a bit of discussion found all of the forms through 20. But it took them a few days to discuss with older villagers and agree on the higher numeral forms (20-2000). I also questioned a group of 10-12 year old boys about numbers – they could only remember one, two, and three.

Other notesː

  i. In diphthongs ending in a high vowel /i/ or /u/ before a glottal stop, the high

      vowel laxes to [ɪ] or [ʊ], respectively. So this kahaiʔ is pronounced kahaɪʔ in
      isolation. See also number 10.
  ii  Literally, ‘five and two’. Phonetically the conjunction can either be he or hi; these
      two forms seem to be in free variation.

  iii Literally, hugging’. Note that there are two inflected forms of this word which
      seem to be used interchangeably:
kĩ-pa?ĩõp and -pãʔĩõp. The root is pã?ĩõp,
      which can exist independently as well as the imperative form of the verb ‘hug’.
      This might be a reference to the shape of the number 8, which could be seen as
      two objects hugging. This is my speculation and has not been confirmed by
      Enggano speakers.

  iv  ka-ba kahai? literally, ‘one coming.’ This seems to mean ‘eight, and one more’.

      The full form seems to be kĩ?pã?ĩõp ka-ba kahai?. Perhaps the word for eight is

      not explicit here since it was just mentioned in sequence during the elicitation.

      See numbers 19 and 29, where the full form is attested.

   v  kĩ?pã?ãũ? looks like another verb, since ki- and pa- are both prefixes and can
       occur in this order; as in the form ki-pa-pe ‘give’. I missed this connection while

       I was on the field, so I don’t know what the verb root (ãũ? ???) means.
       Phonetically, this word also undergoes high vowel laxing in a glide before a
       glottal stop. So phonetically the word is

  vi  ratuh ‘hundred’ is borrowed from Malay ratus ‘hundred’, so kahai? ratuh is
       presumably the more recent form. dibu ‘thousand’ is borrowed from Malay

       ribu ‘thousand’.

  vii  kĩ?pã?ãũ? he ãpã?ĩõp abai kaha? ‘ten and eight one coming’. Note that there
       are different inflections of the verbs on the various forms of 8 and 9, with the
       prefixes ki- and a- and the suffix –i.

       During this trip I did not have the opportunity to do research into Enggano
       morphology, so I do not know the significance of these different forms. I present
       them here as given to me during elicitation.

   viii kahai? kak literally ‘one person’. My informants told me that this is because a

        person has twenty digits – ten fingers and ten toes. Phonetically, the last part of
        the glide and the glottal stop metathesize, yielding the surface form
       This is true for all the 20’s, 100, and 1000.

Enggano Consonantsː 









p, b

 t, d






 s *


  x *



















Lateral approximant


l *




1 Occurs only word-finally in a few native words. [s] and [x] may be allophones.
2 Occurs only word-finally in a few native words. Phonetically a velar fricative [x]
  after non-front vowels [ɨ], [ə] and [u]; a palatal fricative after front vowels [a],
] and [i].
3 Occurs in only a few native words.
Enggano Vowels:






i, ĩ

 ɨ, ɨ̃

u, ũ


e, ẽ

 ə, ə̃

o, õ


a, ã




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