Language name and location: mBo-Ungu, Papua New Guinea [Refer to Ethnologue]

言名称和分布地区姆布-翁布语, 巴布亚新几内亚西高地省


1. tiɡlú

21.  tókapunɡa tilu

2. táɡle (unreleased)

22.  tókapunɡa tale

3. yúpuku

23.  tókapunɡa yúpuku

4. ánɡere

24.  tokapu

5. ánɡere te ɡudlí (vowel not released)


6. ánɡere táɡle ɡuli


7. ánɡere yupuku-ɡuli 


8. enɡkáki / enɡɡaki  


9. rureponɡa tilu


10. rúrepunɡa tale


11. rúrepunɡa yupuku


12. rúrepu


13. máɡlapunɡa tilu


14. máɡlapunɡa tale


15. máɡlapunɡa yúpuku


16. málapu


17. súpunɡa tilu


18. súpunɡe tale


19. súpunɡe yúpuku


20. supú



Linguist providing data and dateː Mr. Robert Head, SIL International, Papua New Guinea, December 4, 2017.

提供资的语言: Mr. Robert Head, 2017 年 12 月 4 日.


Other comments: Bo-Ungu is spoken by about 30,000 speakers in Hagen, Lower Kaugel, and Tambul districts, Western Highlands province: Hagen, Lower Kaugel, and Tambul districts, Papua New Guinea. Bo-Ungu dialect of Kaugel has a counting system similar to that of Umbu-Ungu dialect of Kaugel.

1.  You should not be making x10 jumps 30/40/etc in a 4-based system (4,8,12, etc). I’m sure we are not unique with that.

2.  Umbu-Ungu (sub-dialects Kala, No-Penge, Andelale, with phonetic differences forcing separate written texts/Bibles); Imbo-Ungu, and Bo-Ung are all “sub-dialects” of what we have grouped “Kaugel” language. Bo-Ung only has a major numeral difference at 4 – “angere”, compared with “kise” in other dialects.

3.  We have pre-nasalised stops, written word medially but not word initially, except that Bo-Ung has velar nasals which do not have velar stops. When Bo-Ung has a velar stop (rare) we write it, thus 8 = engkáki. 

4.  Imbo-Ungu and Umbu-Ungu have straight CV patterns (an occasional CCV), whereas Bo-Ung throws out half the vowels, as does Melpa (Hagen area), so consonent clusters are common, and even syllabic nasals.

I will attach our primary Umbu-Ungu dictionary.

5.  You can look up numerals yourself under the English words, such as, for example, what I have copied and pasted here. It’s double work for me right now.  Once I get over 24 I cannot confirm what the Bo-Ung equivalent is, as I am not in the language area right now.

twenty five (numeral)  Num.Ph. alapú.nge + telú, see: alapú+.

twenty four modified by phrase    num. tokapú+.

twenty nine (numeral)     Num.Ph. palangipu.nge + telú, see: palangipu+.

twenty (numeral)   num. supú.

twenty one (numeral)       — tokapú.nge + telú, see: +telú; Num.Ph. tokapú.nge + telú, see: tokapú+.

twenty seven (number)   Num.Ph. álapu.nge‑yépoko.

twenty seven (numeral) — alapú.nge + yépoko, see: alapú+.

twenty six (number)   Num.Ph. álapu.nge‑tálo.

twenty six (numeral) — alapú.nge + tálo, see: alapú+.

twenty three (numeral)    — tokapú.nge + yépoko, see: tokapú+;

thirteen          — malapú.nge + telú, see: +telú.

thirteen(numeral) Num.Ph. malapú.nge(/?.nga?N-P) + telú, see: malapú+.

thirty (numeral)      — palangipu.nge + tálo, see: palangipu+.

thirty one (numeral)   — palangipu.nge + yépoko, see: palangipu+.

thirty two modified by phrase num. palangipu+.

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