Order of Adverb, Verb and Object: ‘Often’ (Feature 11)
A word order parameter that has been prominent in generative grammar is the order of frequency adverbs and the verb in a transitive sentence. Here we will limit ourselves to adverbs that translate ‘often’ (or ‘usually’, ‘mostly’, ‘a lot’, ‘many times’, ‘all the time’, ‘always’).
In the values, the order of the subject is ignored, and we only consider full-NP direct objects (not pronominal direct objects). Moreover, we only consider the position of the main verb, ignoring any auxiliary verbs.
By adverb we mean any fixed expression for frequency that is not clearly an argument noun phrase or a verb (phrase). Thus, we include not only single word expressions like often and always, but also fixed phrasal expressions like all the time. However, freely created phrasal expressions (e.g. with high frequency) do not count as adverbs.
|1||Verb-Adverb-Object||French Marie embrasse souvent Jean-Jacques. (*Marie souvent embrasse Jean-Jacques.)|
|2||Adverb-Verb-Object||English Mary often kisses John. (*Mary kisses often John.); Réunion Creole souvandefwa mi vwa mon pti tant [often I see my little bag]‘I often see my little straw bag.’|
|3||Verb-Object-Adverb||San Andrés Creole Mary kis John plenty.|
|4||Object-Adverb-Verb|| Sri Lanka Portuguese Creole |
Eev vosa kuñaadu-pa kada òòra kilembraa. [1sg 2sg.gen brother.in.law-acc every time hab.think.of]
‘I often remember your brother-in-law.’
|5||Adverb-Object-Verb|| E.g. Sri Lanka Malay |
Farida manawaktule nasi amakan.
[Farida often rice eat]
‘Farida often eats rice’.
|7||Other||(Please give details in the “General comments” field.)|