Noun Phrase Conjunction and Comitative (Feature 71)
Here we ask whether a language uses a different marker for noun phrase conjunction (e.g. English John and Mary went to the movies) and comitative phrases (e.g. John went to the movies with Mary), as is the case in English (and vs. with), or whether the language has the same marker for noun phrase conjunction and comitative phrases, as e.g. in Principense (ki renders both 'and' and 'with').
If a conjunction or comitative marker has more functions than instrumental or comitative, disregard these additional functions.
See APiCS Glossary ("Identity and differentiation") for a visual representation of the following values:
1. Identity: only oneword for the two functions
2. Differentiation: two different words for the two functions
3. Overlap: two words, one of which has only one of the functions,
while the other one has both
4. Identity and differentiation: three words: one functions both as a
noun phrase conjunctor and as a comitative marker; the second only
as a noun phrase conjunctor; and the third only as comitative marker.
|1||Identity|| Principense; and Early Sranan:|
Dem sa moesoe gie dem na
[they fut must give them loc
granman nanga couroutoe abara.
chief and court over]
‘They should hand them over to the Governor and the Court.’ vs.
Kon nanga mie.
‘Come with me.’
|2||Differentiation|| English; and Juba Arabic:|
Ána wa úo anína gum rúwa fi Salakána.
[I and he we get.up go to Salakana]
‘Me and him, we made our way toward Salakana.’ vs.
Ban-át bi gum ma awlád.
[girl-pl hab get.up with boy]
‘The girls get up with the boys.’
|3||Overlap|| Nigerian Pidgin: |
Ìm gò dans wìt dèm.
[3sg fut dance with them]
‘(S)he will dance with them.’ vs.
Ìm ànd / wìt dèm gò dans.
[3sg and / with them fut dance]
‘(S)he and they will dance.’
|4||Identity and differentiation||(This value would be chosen if a language had three markers: one used only for conjunction, one only for comitative, and the third for both.)|