Negative Morpheme Types (Feature 100)
Here we ask about the nature of morphemes signalling clausal negation in declarative sentences (= standard negation). By clausal negation is meant the simple negation of an entire clause:
(1) Lea is eating bread. (2) Lea is not eating bread.
(2) is the negative clause corresponding to the affirmative clause in (1).
Not considered here are noun phrase negation(No students were present), negative pronouns (Nobody came; see Feature 102), or negative adverbs (She never eats pizza).
It is not always easy to differentiate between a negative particle and negative auxiliary verb. In the simplest case, if the negative word does not occur with inflectional morphology associated with verbs in the language, it is treated as a particle, while if it does occur with inflectional morphology associated with verbs in the language, then it is treated as a negative auxiliary verb. However, if the language has little or no inflection, other (possibly language-particular) criteria will need to be invoked.
If there are several kinds of standard negation (e.g. in different tenses), you may select several values.
|1||Negative affix||Lezgian atana ‘came’, atana-č ‘did not come’|
|2||Negative auxiliary verb|| A word that inflects as a verb, and which can be considered a type of auxiliary verb, since it normally must accompany another verb; Finnish |
E-n syö-nyt omena-a.
[NEG-1SG eat-PTCP apple-PART]
‘I didn’t eat an apple.’
|3||Negative word (unclear if auxiliary verb or particle)|| Often in isolating languages it is not clear whether we are dealing with a verb or a particle.|
|4||Negative particle||A negative word that is clearly not a verb (because it shows no verbal properties such as inflection), English Lea is not eating bread.|
|5||Double negative marker||cf. values 4 and 5 of Feature 101|