Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Personal Pronouns (Feature 15)
Here we ask how independent personal pronouns express ‘we’-like concepts.Inclusive and exclusive pronouns differ in that
– an inclusive pronoun necessarily includes reference to the addressee and means ‘we = I and you’; others can optionally be included.
– an exclusive pronoun excludes the addressee from the reference, resulting in a meaning like ‘I and some others, but not you’.
|1||No inclusive/exclusive opposition||Cf. European languages (including English), Belizean Creole wi, Seychelles Creole nou|
|2||Inclusive and exclusive differentiated||Specialized pronouns for both inclusive and exclusive reference, Bislama yumi (inclusive) vs. mifala (exclusive)|
|3||Only inclusive differentiated||There is a special pronoun for the inclusive ‘we’, but the marking of the exclusive is identical to ‘I’ (e.g. Canela-Krahô).|
|4||'We' and 'I' identical||The 1sg pronoun and 1pl pronoun are identical (e.g. Qawasqar).|
|5||No word for ‘we’||Some languages have no basic way of expressing any ‘we’-like concept. In these languages there is no morpheme at all corresponding to English we, but instead the speakers say 'I and you' or ‘I and he’ (e.g. Pirahã).|