Comparative Standard Marking (Feature 42)
In a comparative construction, e.g. English John is taller than Peter, the standard refers to the entity Y (Peter) to which the topic X (John) is compared, marked by the particle than in English (see also Feature 41, “Comparative Adjective Marking”).
Comparative constructions involve adjectives. Note that we use adjective in a semantic sense, as in Feature 3 (”Order of Adjective and Noun”, see also APiCS Glossary, adjective), to refer to gradable property concepts. Thus, if your language has no adjective–verb distinction, this feature is still relevant.
The standard markers are here classified by the salient other meanings that they have in addition to that of marking the standard. Surpass markers also occur as (or are closely related to) a verb meaning ‘surpass’ or ‘exceed’. Locational markers have a locational sense (ablative, allative, locative), or a dative sense. Particle markers are specialized for standard marking, or at least have no ‘surpass’ or locational meaning (English than and French que belong here).
If several constructions are possible, you may select several values.
|1||Surpass marking|| Something like “X (more) Adjective surpass Y” (This means that the standard marker is related to a verb meaning ‘surpass’.) |
À big pas yù.
[1sg be.big surpass 2sg]
‘I am bigger than you.’
|2||Particle marking|| Something like “X is (more) Adjective than Y” Vincentian Creole |
Mi taala dan shi.
‘I am taller than her.’
|3||Locational marking|| Something like “X is (more) Adjective from/at/to Y”; here a locational adposition or case marks the standard:|
Ána ajúz min íta.
[1sg old from 2sg]
‘I am older than you’
|4||Conjoined marking||Something like “X is Adjective, Y is non-Adjective” (”My neighbour’s house is big, my house is small”.)|
|5||Standard is not overtly marked||Something like “X is (more) Adjective Y”|
|6||Other||(Please give details in the “General comments” field.)|